December 06, 2011

Missed Opportunity

A British soldier may have had a chance to kill Hitler in WWI. The story is interesting, and he "was always haunted by an act of decency to an indecent man."

(h/t OMG Facts)

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November 19, 2011

Jack Trice

Some of you may have watched Iowa State upset Oklahoma State last night. That upset took place at Jack Trice Stadium in Ames, Iowa. Jack Trice Stadium is the only Division I football stadium named after an African American.

Jack Trice played just one game for Iowa State University, so why would the stadium be named for him? Because he played that game in 1923, when some colleges and universities refused to even play against an opposing team with black players.

Trice's only game was against the University of Minnesota. The night before the game, Trice had to stay in a different hotel from his teammates because of racial segregation in Minneapolis. He wrote a letter to himself that night, which would be read at his funeral 11 days later.

During the game, Trice's collarbone was broken, but he played on. Later in the game, Trice was trampled by three Minnesota players after he blocked one of their teammates. He died two days later of internal bleeding from injuries sustained during that incident. It was never resolved whether Trice's injuries were accidentally or purposely inflicted, and Iowa State refused to play the University of Minnesota again until 1989.

It should be noted that it was repeated efforts by the Iowa State students that finally got Jack Trice's name on their stadium in 1997. Students in the 70s tried to get their new stadium named for him, but the University's President named it Cyclone Stadium instead. Iowa State students got the playing field named Jack Trice Field in the 80s, and raised money for the Jack Trice statue that stands outside the gates. Their renewed efforts to change the stadium name in the 90s paid off.

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October 28, 2011

Birthday Wishes

Happy 125th birthday to the Statue of Liberty! Lady Liberty was dedicated on October 28, 1886.

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October 12, 2009

WW2 history

Anyone who is a WW2 history buff knows about operation Market Garden. Michael Yon has lots of excellent pictures from a remembrance of it in Holland. It is really something to see how thankful an entire country is to the service men who liberated them so many years ago. It is a long article but well worth the time. Also hit his tip jar if you can. He is 100% reader supported.


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August 30, 2009

Auschwitz-Birkenau

It took Rachel Lucas several weeks to steel herself to write this post, and it took me nearly a week to steel myself to read it.

It's been sitting, saved, in my feedreader since Monday. This early morning, in the absolute quiet, I was finally ready to read it. If you haven't already, you should too. Reminders are good for all of us.

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November 05, 2008

The Day After

Here are some historians' thoughts on the significance of the election.

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May 02, 2008

Recalling the Life of Leoba

In studying History, students are expected to look critically at the sources they use. This is my slightly edited critique of a source I had to read for a course on Medieval Women. The source was Rudolf of Fuldam's Life of Leoba.

Saint Leoba was a nun who lived during the 8th century and participated in missionary work with Saint Boniface in Germany. The story of her life was written by the monk Rudolf of Fuldam sometime around 836, about 57 years after Leoba’s death.

Rudolf wrote about Leoba’s life supposedly so that other pious women could emulate her. He dedicated the story to Hadamout, another nun, “to read with pleasure and imitate with profit.” However, the story was written at the behest of Rhabamus Marcus on the occasion of the movement and reinterment of Leoba’s relics. The true purpose in writing the account of Leoba’s life was to document her saintly status and cement her holiness in the historical record.

Rudolf wrote about Leoba for the current and future generations of Christian faithful, and he certainly thought of the women in particular. He recounted Leoba’s many virtues clearly so that they could be celebrated and copied by other women. Her behaviors of moderation, in particular, were mentioned more than once. She limited her quantities of food and drink to just enough to sustain health. She emulated her fellow nuns; taking the best virtue of each and practicing it herself, so that she embodied all the virtues that were wanted in a pious Christian woman in her lifetime. These were all qualities one would expect from a saint, as well.

Another quality expected from a saint is a life seemingly destined for holiness. Leoba’s mother reportedly had a dream or vision before her birth, foretelling Leoba’s fate. The mother had been unable to have children, but after she promised God that her child would be brought up in His service, she was able to conceive. Later, Leoba had her own dream or vision which was interpreted to mean she would spread God’s word and wisdom near and far. Rudolf demonstrated through his account of Leoba’s life that both of these prophecies came true, and this helped to further cement Leoba as a proper saint.

One can not be a saint without miracles, and Leoba had several miracles attributed to her during her life. Rudolf recalled four of these miracles through information gathered from the memoirs of those who actually knew Leoba. His main sources of information were four nuns who were Leoba’s contemporaries. Unfortunately, Rudolf could not read their memoirs directly, for they left none. Instead, a monk or priest named Mago wrote down the nuns’ recollections. This source is problematic for historians because Mago did not sit with each nun and transcribe their conversation. Rather, he wrote garbled shorthand notes during their group conversations.

Another problem with Rudolf’s sources arises when Rudolf mentioned other men who wrote about Leoba based on their own conversations with the four nuns, but did not see fit to actually name any of those men. Rudolf wrote that, “there should be no doubt in the minds of the faithful about the veracity of the statements made in this book, since they are shown to be true both by the blameless character of those who relate them and by the miracles which are frequently performed at the shrine of the saint.” The faithful may have no problem accepting the story at face value, but the rest of us wonder how we can substantiate the “blameless character” of men who remain unnamed. Rudolf’s intention in disclosing his sources was presumably to establish the infallibility of the information, although to a critical eye it fails to do this.

After recounting a miracle of a wicked woman who confessed to killing her baby as a direct result of Leoba’s prayers, there is an interesting passage in Rudolf’s narrative. He wrote, “Even before this God had performed many miracles through Leoba, but they had been kept secret. This one was her first in Germany and, because it was done in public, it came to the ears of everyone.” What is interesting about this is that he glossed over her supposed “many miracles”, and it is also amazing that miracles would be kept a secret. One wonders why the Church would conceal the glory of God’s work, when it could help other men and women find the light.

The next miracle recounted by Rudolf involved a fire in the village. Leoba put blessed salt in the water and the water put out the fire “as if a flood had fallen from the skies.” This miracle seems like it should have been credited to St. Boniface rather than Leoba, as it was Boniface who blessed the salt. Why water putting out fire was a miracle is a little muddled in this text, because Rudolf did not offer any details about the wonder of it beyond what is quoted above. Rudolf’s intended audience, however, would not be so critical. They would already believe, and this account of Leoba’s miracle would further strengthen her status as a saintly and holy woman.

The remaining two miracles recounted by Rudolf showed the power of Leoba’s relics. This was the only instance in Rudolf’s account that came from a reasonably reliable source, as it was Rudolf himself who witnessed these two events. It was the only first-hand account, as well as the only source actually named besides Mago.

Leoba did become a saint, and Rudolf’s account may have helped her in the canonization process. He included the information that would be needed to cement Leoba as a truly holy woman. She was a virgin, she embodied all the ideals of a Christian woman, God performed His works through her in the form of miracles, and she did God’s work as a nun and an abbess. She was extraordinary in that she traveled with Boniface to head up the new community of nuns he established in Germany. She was extraordinary in that she did not display a few ideal character traits, but all of them. Rudolf painted a picture of her as the flawless model that all Christian women should aspire to become. His main purpose was to prove her worthy of the title of “Saint”, and the side effect was that he made an example for Christian women everywhere.

Reference: the only source used in this post is Rudolf of Fuldam's Life of Leoba.

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April 25, 2008

Happy Birthday, Guillotine!

On this date in 1792, Jacques Nicolas Pelletier became the first to experience the guillotine.

For more info, please visit Wikipedia...I particulary enjoy the "Living Heads" section. But I'm all morbidly curious like that.

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April 09, 2008

Russian History: Origins

SarahK likes Russian History, so here is a tidbit.

Imperial Russia long accepted 862 as the birth of the state. Before that, Russia was a bunch of tribes and marauders and so forth roaming around the countryside. After that, it was actually pretty much the same for awhile. But in 862, the first imperial dynasty was established in Novgorod.

And what totally awesome Russian started it all, you might ask?

Well, as the story goes, a Viking named Ryurik took the first step towards building a mighty Soviet Emp--wait. Viking?!

Vikings aren't Russian!

Yes, well. There is a little controversy about the ethnic origins of the Ryurikids. According to the Russian Chronicle of the 1100s, the locals invited the Viking Ryurik to rule over them and protect them from Huns and the like.

According to later (*cough*Communist*cough*) Russian histories, this is a pack of lies! Russians didn't need any Nordic riffraff to take care of business.

So. What is the truth of the matter? Well, the first Russian princes had Scandinavian names. So they were probably Vikings.

But. Very few Nordic words made it into Old Russian, and not much else culturally seems to have been borrowed from the Scandinavians, either. So if the princes were Vikings, they adopted their new languages and cultures pretty completely.

Today, genetic testing is attempting to answer the question, and thus far it looks like Ryurik came from...(drumroll)...Sweden!

(Reference: Ronald Hingley's Russia. Also see: Ancestry.com.)

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January 31, 2006

Others

It is widely accepted that the eleventh century was pivotal in relations between Jews and Christians. Jews became marginalized socially and economically during this time. They were forced to live separately for their own protection, and they were forced into the position of moneylenders. These developments made them literally and figuratively "other" than the rest of society.

Jewish merchants were among the few who were willing to engage in international trade, and they needed to protect themselves from the dangers of such an occupation. They would necessarily band together and work together to increase their security. Jewish communities connected Jews from all over Europe, and provided a place for them to worship and live as they chose. In the eleventh century, they often became fortified communities to protect Jews from hostile Christians.

This physical separation from the Christian majority made the differences between Christians and Jews even more obvious. A number of Jews resettled in Speyer after a fire was set in their neighborhood in Mainz. The local bishop welcomed them and built a wall to protect their area of the village. This example is the first of its kind, and Leonard Glick writes, "But clearly this charter signaled the onset of a new phase in medieval Jewish history; and despite its friendly language, it indicated that many townspeople did not want Jews in their midst." The wall was erected not to protect Jews from Crusaders, but to protect Jews from the townspeople of Speyer. The Crusades did not begin for another decade.

Already physically detached from much of society, Jews were much more vulnerable to attacks when the religious fervor of the Crusades reached its peak. For one thing, they were easily identifiable. If Jews were segregated into walled neighborhoods, it was much easier for an unruly band of traveling warriors to figure out where the Jews were living. If the Jewish people had been living mixed amongst Christians, someone from out of town would not likely be able to distinguish Jewish homes from Christian ones.

The Speyer charter and subsequent charters granted to Jewish communities in Germany show that by the time of the First Crusade, German Jews were definitely "other" than the rest of society. They were "expected to function independently--that is, to establish themselves as a semienclosed community within a town, to attend to their own legal and administrative needs, and to operate for most intents and purposes as a society within society."

Adding to the decline of the Jewish relationship with Christian society was the changing usefulness of Jewish businessmen. Once, trade had been a largely Jewish occupation, but Christian merchants were becoming more numerous and successful. Jews were pushed out of their economic sphere and relegated to the role of moneylenders. Glick wrote, "By the late twelfth century, Jews in France had become so prominent as moneylenders, and so exclusively dependent on moneylending for survival, that anything said about 'usury'--invariably negative--was bound to call Jews to mind." The usury, or interest rate, was comparable to Christian moneylenders, but moneylending was so tied to Jewish identity that it sparked more bitterness towards Jews. This view of Jews has haunted them and added to their plight more than anything other than the accusation of deicide.

The change in economic status from successful merchants to reluctant moneylenders pushed the Jews further into the margins of society. No one likes to be dependent on others, and owing money to Jews caused much resentment. Why would a lord go out of his way to protect someone he owes a great deal of money to? It would be in his better interest to see that person eliminated if he had no further need for their services and capital.

Christianity held the view of money as the root of all evil, and Germanic society had been one of gift-givers. For Jews to charge usury on loans was a sin. Besides the moral weight of the occupation, moneylending was also an impersonal one. As Glick wrote, "Moneylenders move nothing and handle nothing other than money; they are simply sources of liquid capital--'moneybags' on whom others draw for productive enterprises. Moneylending is thus by its very nature a socially isolated and isolating activity; it neither requires nor even permits entry into the larger world of economic activities and relationships." Hence, Jews were being further marginalized in society by their dependence on moneylending for economic survival.

Under the Carolingians, Jews had been economically successful merchants who enjoyed the protection of the kings. Pepin the Short even went as far as granting Jews the right to hire Christians. This reversed Roman and church law. This precedent was followed by his successors. Charlemagne "recognize[d] Jewish religious requirements. When appearing as a litigant or witness in court, a Jew was to wrap himself from head to foot in his prayer shawl, hold a Hebrew Torah in his right hand and declare" a Jewish oath of innocence. Louis the Pious was even better than his father and grandfather had been to the Jews. He went out of his way to protect Jewish merchants, and even allowed Jews to preach publicly.

Two centuries later, Jews were no longer granted such rights. They were necessarily segregated from Christians for their own protection, and were only tolerated as long as they were useful. Their economic status had declined dramatically, and they were relegated to the precarious position of moneylenders. They were expected to operate independently within their towns. They were placed behind walls. They were not only physically, but also emotionally separated from society. They were truly "other" than the Christian majority, and easily identifiable as such to anyone who might want to harm them. When the First Crusade began, there were enough Christians who wanted to harm them, and Jews were massacred by men who claimed to be doing it for the Lord. As the Nazis knew almost a millennium later, it is far easier to kill somebody if you don't think he is your equal. If he is "other" than you, and lesser than you, it's not as hard to mistreat him. The Jews were "other" than the Christian majority, and the Christian majority of medieval Europe had little difficulty in mistreating the Jews. Jews weren't always killed, but they were always pushed farther into the margins.

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January 27, 2006

January 27, 1945

Auschwitz was liberated by the Red Army.

The liberation saved about 7,500 sick prisoners who had been left behind by the Nazis:

In mid-January 1945, as Soviet forces approached the Auschwitz camp complex, the SS began evacuating Auschwitz and its satellite camps. Nearly 60,000 prisoners were forced to march west from the Auschwitz camp system. Thousands had been killed in the camps in the days before these death marches began. Tens of thousands of prisoners, mostly Jews, were forced to march to the city of Wodzislaw in the western part of Upper Silesia. SS guards shot anyone who fell behind or could not continue. Prisoners also suffered from the cold weather, starvation, and exposure on these marches. More than 15,000 died during the death marches from Auschwitz.

Upon arrival in Wodzislaw, the prisoners were put on unheated freight trains and transported to concentration camps in Germany, particularly to Flossenbuerg, Sachsenhausen, Gross-Rosen, Buchenwald, and Dachau, and also to Mauthausen in Austria. The rail journey lasted for days. Without food, water, shelter, or blankets, many prisoners did not survive the transport.

The liberation of Auschwitz was especially important because it finally revealed the horrors perpetrated by the Nazis to the world. Well, to the sensible and sane part of the world, anyway. It's something that needs to be remembered.

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January 26, 2006

January 26, 1784

On this date, Benjamin Franklin wrote a letter to his daughter declaring the turkey a better choice than the eagle to represent our country.

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November 23, 2005

November 23, 1897

On this date, former slave Andrew Beard patented the "jenny coupler", which is still in use to hook railroad cars together safely.

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November 14, 2005

November 14, 1940

On this date, the English town of Coventry was devastated by German bombers. Churchill knew about the attack ahead of time but did not alert town officials.

Why? Because an evacuation of the town would have been communicated to Germany by the pilots, and Hitler would have known that England was intercepting and decoding German communications.

Churchill was focused on the big picture, which may or may not have been some consolation to the families of the over 1,000 English civilians killed.

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November 09, 2005

Medieval Barber

So, you have a hernia? Hmm, we're not really sure how to fix that. But we have noticed that eunuchs don't get hernias, so we're pretty sure we have a surgical option that will cure you of the hernia problem. See, what we're going to do is cut off your gonads. Now, wait a minute, I don't think you're thinking this through very well. Who's the barber here? I mean, do you want to live with the hernia, or do you want to find a cure? Very well, then. We'll schedule the surgery as soon as possible.

In the 5th Century, testicular castration became a "cure" for hernias. Of course, the eunuch population that was seen without hernias was a small sample, but doctors were groping for any way to treat the problem. Castration became a panacea for many medical ailments in Europe until the nineteenth century. One eighteenth century doctor wrote of a castrator who had so many clients that her dog was fed entirely on the surgically removed bits.

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November 02, 2005

*November 2, 1917

The Balfour Declaration sets the wheels in motion for a Jewish homeland.

And it's still controversial.

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November 01, 2005

*November 1, 1765

The most well-remembered Stamp Act went into effect on this date.

It did not go over well.

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October 31, 2005

*October 31, 1950

On this date, Earl Lloyd became the first black player ever to play in an NBA game.

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October 19, 2005

Regurgitation on Monasticism

Somebody has suggested that I post my papers here, but that's not going to happen. For one thing, they generally focus on particular readings that most of you probably don't have sitting on your bookshelves. The somebody in question expressed an interest in monasticism, though, so I'll give you a brief overview.

Monasticism is basically the life of monks and nuns in monasteries, for those unfamiliar with the terminology (such as one of the girls from my class who has not been going or doing the reading, apparently). In the early days of Christianity, the occasional spiritual type would go off to the wilderness to live as a hermit and focus solely on religious matters. People would hear about men like St. Anthony and flock to be near them, which kind of ruined the whole hermit lifestyle. Undaunted, the spiritual would maintain their separation from those around them. They lived together, yet quietly removed from each other. The ideal Christian life was chaste ascetism.

Eventually this type of community evolved into the more social monastery. The monastery was a place where monks and/or nuns (some were coed) could live a communal, spiritual life. The monasteries were supposed to be self-sufficient and not depend on the outside world. They grew their own food, took care of their own animals, built their own shelters, etc.

At this point in history, the Western Roman Empire had fallen, and the Germanic people who moved into western Europe were largely illiterate. The Germanic kings needed scribes to help their administrations...someone has to keep track of the taxrolls, after all. The Roman culture had placed importance on education and literacy, but that had fallen away as the Western Empire did. Monasteries, of course, were full of monks who needed to be literate in order to read the Bible and other religious works (such as the writings of St. Augustine). Scribes were taken from the monasteries to help with government work.

Monasteries often had a scriptorium, where the monks would hand-copy books. They copied not only Bibles and religious works--they also copied classic literature and history. For example, without the monks of the 8th Century, most of the history of Tacitus would have been lost to us forever--only one 8th Century copy of his writings survived at one time. There was some conflict about the copying of pagan books, but luckily for us the importance of preserving Roman culture won out some of the time.

Books were very important to monks and nuns, as they spent most of their time with them. Benedictine Rule, prescribed by St. Benedict (c. 480-550), laid out a full day of activities for monks and nuns to follow. Communal prayer, private devotional reading, and work (such as housework, field work, or work in the scriptorium) filled the days. Eventually, the "work" portion of Benedictine Rule became less important. Monasteries often accumulated great wealth and turned to hired help to do the "non-spiritual" work around the monastery. This allowed the monks to focus on the spiritual.

Monks and nuns were often children of noble families who would not be inheriting their families' estates. They needed a way to make a living, and the monastery or nunnery offered a respectable life of reasonable comfort. They became "Those Who Pray". Peasants were "Those Who Work", and the nobility were "Those Who Fight". This tripartite view of society was very popular by the High Middle Ages, with the peasants supporting the other two classes.

And there we end today's lecture. If I feel like it, we might go into the class division later on. The rise of feudalism and all that.

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September 20, 2005

*Sho'ah

The best way we can honor Simon Wiesenthal is to remember.

You can take a virtual tour of Auschwitz.

Or buy Terrence Des Pres's The Survivor and familiarize yourself with the term "excremental assault". (An excerpt in the extended.)

Do either of these and I don't think you'll forget the images.

Everybody in the block had typhus...it came to Belsen Bergen in its most violent, most painful, deadliest form. The diarrhea caused by it became uncontrollable. It flooded the bottom of the cages, dripping through the cracks into the faces of the women lying in the cages below, and mixed with blood, pus and urine, formed a slimy, fetid mud on the floor of the barracks.

There was one latrine for thirty to thirty two thousand women and we were permitted to use it only at certain hours of the day. We stood in line to get into this tiny building knee-deep in human excrement. As we all suffered from dysentery, we could rarely wait until our turn came, and soiled our ragged clothes, which never came off our bodies, thus adding to the horror of our existence by the terrible smell which surrounded us like a cloud.

Excremental assault was employed by the Nazis on purpose to dehumanize the Jews. It's easier to kill a disgusting, unsanitary animal than a fellow human being.

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August 11, 2005

August 11, 1965

The Watts riots began.

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August 09, 2005

August 9, 1483

Pope Sixtus IV celebrates the first Mass in the Sistine Chapel, which was named for him.

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August 08, 2005

August 8, 1974

In a televised address to the nation, Richard Nixon became the first American president to resign.

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August 05, 2005

August 5, 1864

“Damn the torpedoes! Full speed ahead!” or words to that effect were uttered by Union Admiral David Farragut in the Battle of Mobile Bay. Torpedoes referred to underwater mines, which were largely ineffective at the time (they were made of wood and often became waterlogged). However, one of them is the likely suspect in the blast that sank the USS Tecumseh.

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August 01, 2005

August 1 in History

Take your pick...I'm extra lazy today.

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July 28, 2005

July 28, 1914

Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia one month after the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, kicking off the WWI festivities.

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July 26, 2005

July 26, 1847

On this date, the Republic of Liberia declared its independence, becoming the first democratic republic in African history.

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July 22, 2005

July 22, 1587

A new colony was delivered to Roanoke Island off North Carolina on this date. Later, they would be known as The Lost Colony.

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July 21, 2005

July 21, 1861

The Battle of Bull Run kicks off the major bloodshed of the Civil War.

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July 19, 2005

On Or Around This Date In Egypt...

2781 B.C.--the first known Egyptian calendar is developed.

365--Alexandria is hit by an earthquake, and approximately 50,000 people died.

1799--One of Napoleon's soldiers finds the Rosetta Stone.

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July 15, 2005

July 15, 1939

On this date, Clara Adams became the first female aviator to complete an around the world flight.

And if she had disappeared, you might recognize her name.

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July 14, 2005

July 14, 1099

On this date, Christian European knights of the First Crusade began the final push to capture Jerusalem. They celebrated by massacring the city's Jews and Muslims...and a few Eastern Christians for variety.

I'm so glad we worked out that whole Christianity-Judaism-Islam thing since then.

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July 11, 2005

July 11, 1807

On this date the U.S. Vice President, Aaron Burr, participated in a duel with Alexander Hamilton. Thus ended Alexander Hamilton's political career. And you know, life.

It didn't do much for Burr, either, career-wise.

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July 07, 2005

*65 Years Ago...

September 7 will be the 65th anniversary of the start of the London Blitz. Hitler thought bombing London would demoralize the people and cause the poor to revolt against the government.

The British government conspicuously failed to collapse.

The British people conspicuously failed to be demoralized.

Roughly 43,000 civilians died. Roughly 1,000,000 homes were destroyed.

London survived.

Hitler did not.

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June 15, 2005

June 15, 1215

On this date, King John signed the Magna Carta, early ancestor to the Constitution and Bill of Rights.

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June 13, 2005

June 13, 1865

Bill's Birthday: William Butler Yeats was born on this date.

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June 12, 2005

*June 12, 1964

On this date, Nelson Mandela was sentenced to life in prison.

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June 11, 2005

June 11, 1509

On this date, Henry VIII married his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. The marriage resulted in the birth of a daughter, the future "Bloody Mary", Queen Mary I, but as I'm sure you know, no male heirs. The marriage was annulled after 24 years, and Catherine died about 3 years later.

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June 10, 2005

June 10, 1944

On this date, Nazi SS troops destroyed the French town of Oradour-sur-Glane, killing nearly all the residents.

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June 09, 2005

*June 9, 68

On this date, deposed Roman Emperor Nero committed suicide.

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June 08, 2005

June 8, 632

Muhammad ibn Abdallah, prophet and founder of Islam, died on this date.

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June 05, 2005

June, 1939

During this week in 1939, the SS St. Louis was denied port in Cuba and the U.S. The 900 Jewish refugees on board were returned to Europe, where many died in concentration camps.

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June 02, 2005

*Presidential Fun Fact of the Quarter

Been awhile since I posted a Presidential Fun Fact, so here's one about Coolidge...

One day, he happened to discover a panic button on the White House porch, so he pretended to be tired and leaned against it. Nonchalantly, he went into the White House and watched from behind the curtain as two guards came running to the scene. They found nothing, of course, and returned to the guardhouse. He amused himself by pushing the button two more times in the same manner.

Posted by Jennifer at 11:00 AM

*June 2, 1947

For two years, the All-India Congress tried to reach an agreement on government ministers. Violence between Muslims and Hindus was escalating, with thousands of deaths resulting from the discord. The new government requested a split of India into two independent states: Pakistan would be the Muslims', and the rest of India would be the Hindus'. The plan was announced on this date in 1947...August 14 would be the date of the official split.

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June 01, 2005

*Speaking of Half-Stories...

Henry Hudson discovered and explored the Hudson River/Bay areas, looking for the Northwest Passage. This is about the extent of what I learned about him in school.

Maybe in the East, y'all learn the rest of the story.

Hudson did not discover that area. Giovanni da Verrazano did so about 85 years before Hudson showed up. Hudson didn't really explore much, either. He was just trying to pass through.

Either way, his explorations came to an end when the ship he was on got stuck in the ice of Hudson Bay for winter. When June rolled around and the ice finally broke up, Hudson wanted to continue westward. His crew, which had just spent a winter stuck on the ship, was less inclined to find that a great idea. Eventually they mutinied. Hudson, his son, and seven sickly crew members were let off the ship to do as they wished. The rest of the crew sailed back to Europe.

Hudson was never seen again, and the crew was never punished for their mutiny.

Posted by Jennifer at 06:00 PM

May 31, 2005

*Not-Quite-Breaking News

For those of you who may not have heard, "Deep Throat" has been identified.

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May 27, 2005

*May 27, 1909

On this date, Alva J. Fisher filed the first patent application for an electrically powered washing machine. The machine was manufactured by Chicago's Hurley Machine Company.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:00 AM

May 26, 2005

*May 26, 1907

On this date, John Wayne was born in this house in Winterset, Iowa:

duke_house.JPG
(click to enlarge if you wish)

Posted by Jennifer at 09:00 AM

May 24, 2005

*May 24, 1883

After 14 years of construction, the Brooklyn Bridge was open for business. President Chester A. Arthur and New York Governor Grover Cleveland attended the dedication ceremony, linking Manhattan and Brooklyn together for the first time.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:00 AM

May 23, 2005

May 23, 1911

Today in history, the New York Public Library was dedicated after 14 years of construction. President Taft presided over the dedication of the $9 million marble building. It had a collection of over 1 million books before its doors opened to the general public on May 24.

Posted by Jennifer at 12:00 PM | Comments (2)

April 11, 2005

Emperor of Elba

On this day in 1814, Napoleon abdicated his throne but kept his title. He wouldn't show up to rule Elba until May 4.

Posted by Jennifer at 08:00 AM | Comments (0)

January 31, 2005

*Belated Birthdays

Was extra busy the end of last week, and forgot to post some presidential birthdays...

January 29, 1843--President McKinley, happy birthday to you. I attended a school named after you that was built over an old cemetery during your presidency. Draw your own conclusions.

January 30, 1882--Happy birthday to you, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. You share a birthday with Dick Cheney. Isn't that exciting?

Posted by Jennifer at 02:00 PM | Comments (0)

January 30, 2005

*Beautiful Day

In Iraq:

"This is democracy," the elderly woman said proudly, holding up a thumb stained with the purple ink used to mark those who had voted. "This is the first day I feel freedom."

Welcome to democracy.

Posted by Jennifer at 11:38 AM | Comments (3)

January 25, 2005

*Of Note...

Al Capone died on this date in 1947. He's buried at Mount Carmel (in Hillside), if any of you Chicagoans are interested in visiting him someday.

Posted by Jennifer at 04:18 PM | Comments (0)

January 23, 2005

*Nixon's Secretary

Rose Mary Woods has died, as well.

(She of the erased tapes.)

Posted by Jennifer at 02:09 PM | Comments (1)

January 20, 2005

Naming Mount Rushmore

Everyone knows about Mount Rushmore, but do you know how it got the name?

Charles Rushmore, a New York lawyer, was visiting the area in 1885. His host was a local named David Swanzey, who named the mountain in his guest's honor. The mountain was known by various names until that time, including Sugarloaf Mountain, Cougar Mountain, and the Keystone Cliffs, but the new name of Mount Rushmore stuck.

And who was David Swanzey? The man who would marry Carrie Ingalls (sister of Laura Ingalls Wilder) in 1912.

Posted by Jennifer at 01:00 PM | Comments (1)

January 19, 2005

Not the Car

Happy birthday, General Lee.

But I'm glad you lost.

Posted by Jennifer at 05:00 PM | Comments (2)

January 18, 2005

Presidential Fun Fact--Wilson the Segregationist

Woodrow Wilson is the Democratic President who made women's suffrage part of his re-election platform.

But he was also a segregationist who made segregation in the military official policy. Before Wilson, there were of course segregated units, but he also required segregated housing.

Posted by Jennifer at 05:52 PM | Comments (0)

January 17, 2005

Birthdays

I'd wish Martin Luther King, Jr. a happy birthday, but it's not his birthday.

It is, however, Ben Franklin's birthday. He was the oldest signer of both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, being born in 1706. He is also the only Founding Father to sign the Declaration, Constitution, and Treaty of Paris. So happy birthday, Benjamin!

Posted by Jennifer at 01:00 PM | Comments (3)

January 14, 2005

The Most Famous Traitor

I almost forgot to wish Benedict Arnold a happy birthday.

No, I didn't.

Posted by Jennifer at 03:12 PM | Comments (5)

January 12, 2005

Another Non-Presidential Birthday

Happy birthday, John Hancock. We all know you had a really big...signature. You know, from the Declaration of Independence.

Hancock was born in Braintree, MA and died in Quincy, MA. (It was the same town, go figure.) Same place that produced Presidents John and John Quincy* Adams.

* This is no coincidence. Quincy was Abigail Adams's grandfather.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:11 AM | Comments (0)

January 11, 2005

10-Spot

Happy birthday, Alexander Hamilton. You were never president, but you're welcome to hang out in my wallet anyway.

Posted by Jennifer at 12:36 PM | Comments (2)

January 10, 2005

*January 10th

I don't do "on this day" type posts anymore, but today's a good one...

1776--Thomas Paine's Common Sense was published.

1878--Women's Suffrage Amendment introduced into Congress by A.A. Sargent. (Would not be ratified until August 26, 1920.)

1920--League of Nations founded.

1946--First United Nations General Assembly meeting.

Posted by Jennifer at 08:00 AM | Comments (0)

January 06, 2005

*It's a Wonder

Well, I was going to post about the etymology of the word "mausoleum" and how it originated with the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. As you all know, of course (okay, maybe not), the Mausoleum was one of the Seven Wonders.

But I don't think I'll find the time, so...here are some links to information on the Mausoleum instead! Yay, links!

Basic information, which fails to mention that the Mausoleum is the only Wonder known to have been built by a woman. Well, not personally built, but you know what I mean. It was her little project.

More specifics on the building of the tomb and its history.

The British Museum is home to most surviving sculpture of the Mausoleum...several pictures are available. (Click on the COMPASS links at the bottom to see additional objects in their collection.)

Posted by Jennifer at 02:01 PM | Comments (0)

January 05, 2005

*Presidential Fun Fact: Silent Cal's Will

Calvin Coolidge's will did nothing to change the perception that he was a man of few words:

"Not unmindful of my son, I give all of my estate, both real and personal, to my wife, Grace Coolidge, in fee simple."

If only all legal documents (or politicians, for that matter) could be as short and to-the-point.

Posted by Jennifer at 02:28 PM | Comments (2)

January 03, 2005

*Presidential Fun Fact: Washington's Slaves

George Washington freed his slaves when he died. Everybody knows that.

Erm, yes. Well.

Truth is that his will provided for their freedom upon Martha's death, and that only included the slaves he himself personally owned. Martha, rich widow that she was before marrying George, owned most of the slaves herself. The only slave that was actually freed when George kicked the bucket was his former valet, a crippled old man named William.

In his defense, it would have been problematic for George to suddenly free all the slaves anyway. For one thing, they would have been hard-pressed to find work and feed themselves. So to his credit, he provided they be taught to read and write, and for those of appropriate age to learn a trade. He also stipulated that his heirs were to take care of any freed slaves unable to take care of themselves due to age or illness.

Martha decided to free the slaves before her death, by the way, so they were freed a year after George died.

Posted by Jennifer at 08:15 AM | Comments (2)

December 10, 2004

*Athlete-Hero

There are little museums in just about every little town in America. You sometimes don't even notice them, much less stop inside to see what they're all about.

The Bob Feller Museum is about half an hour away, and I'd driven past the sign on the interstate several times, but never got around to pulling off the exit to check it out...until a few weeks ago.

I knew Feller was a Hall of Fame baseball player, and I assumed he was from Iowa, since we have a whole museum dedicated to him, but I learned he was more than that. Feller was an All-Star pitcher who was named the Major League Player of the Year in 1940.

And he walked away from it at 22 years of age.

On December 8, 1941--the Day after Pearl Harbor--Feller enlisted in the Navy. He served for four years before returning to baseball.

Besides that, he has a place in baseball legend...
baberuth.jpg
(click to enlarge if you wish)

That bat Babe Ruth is leaning on? It was Feller's bat.
ruthbat.jpg
(click to enlarge if you wish)

The bat is now on display at the museum, along with other memorabilia.
feller_a.JPG feller_b.JPG
(click to enlarge if you wish)

The lady working at the museum took the time to talk about Feller's career and the collection, and was very nice. It cost $4 admission, but it was a neat little place to visit. So if you're ever around Van Meter, Iowa, stop by. You can't miss it:
feller.jpg
(click to enlarge if you wish)

Posted by Jennifer at 10:15 AM | Comments (2)

December 09, 2004

*Medieval Torture--The Portable Kind

The rack, for all its effectiveness, was a bit bulky and not exactly easy to transport. If torture on-the-go was required, other devices met the need.

The thumbscrew, as one might imagine, was a ring that fit over the thumb or finger and was tightened by a wingnut screw. It was unsophisticated, but easily transportable and rather painful. Some versions accommodated more than one finger or thumb, and others had sharp spikes inside them to inflict even more pain. This little torture device was seen in Europe from the 14th century until the 18th, but its use was continued at slave plantations well afterwards.

The kittee was a larger version of the thumbscrew, seen in India for centuries before the British colonized it. British tax collectors used the kittee on unwilling Indian taxpayers. The kittee was large enough to be used on hands, feet, genitals, nipples, noses, etc.

Finally, the Scavenger's Daughter (or Skeffington's Irons) was the opposite of the rack. Instead of pulling a body apart, it compressed a body upon itself. Sir Leonard Skeffington invented the iron loop, which held a person in a fetal position...their legs bent and hugged to their chest. An iron clamp on one end was used to tighten the loop until blood came out of the hands, feet, mouth, and nose of the person who failed to confess. The device was invented during the reign of Henry VIII and wasn't used as widely for torture as it was for prisoner transport.

Posted by Jennifer at 07:15 PM | Comments (0)

*Vice-Presidential Fun Fact

What do Fairbanks, Alaska and Dallas, Texas have in common?

Both were named after vice-presidents: Charles Fairbanks and George Mifflin Dallas.

Posted by Jennifer at 08:30 AM | Comments (0)

December 08, 2004

*Medieval Torture--The Rack

Who can talk about medieval torture devices and not at least mention the rack? It's probably the most well-known...the one torture device that represents all torture devices.

The rack dates back to Ancient Greece, but was only occasionally employed until the Spanish Inquisition brought it front and center in Europe. In 1447, Constable John Holland, the Duke of Exeter, introduced the rack into the Tower of London. It came to be the most popular torture device in England, and was nicknamed the "Duke of Exeter's daughter".

Now, some people might think the rack can't be all that bad. It stretches you out, and surely we can all use a good back-stretching now and then. But the rack stretched you out far enough to raise you off the ground and dislocate your joints. Your feet were tied to a fixed bar, and your arms were tied to a movable bar. The movable bar was rolled farther away by a series of pulleys and levers until eventually you were a few inches off the ground and all your body weight was up there with you.

After you finally confessed to whatever they wanted you to confess to, you'd probably be too crippled to get on the witness stand or even raise your right hand to swear to tell the truth. Then you'd be found guilty and they'd burn you at the stake or hang you or provide some other form of capital punishment. If you didn't confess, your limbs would be ripped off and you'd die anyway.

The rack was used to its fullest potential in England for about 150 years before it was deemed too cruel. It fell out of fashion in the 1590s, and was outlawed in 1628.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:48 AM | Comments (0)

December 03, 2004

*Capital Punishment

In honor of certain court proceedings in California, here is a brief (very brief) history of capital punishment in general.

Capital punishment is nothing new, and has probably been around as long as human disputes. The first recorded incidences in Europe took place in the 5th Century B.C., and Egyptians were diligently recording their death sentences at least a thousand years earlier.

Crimes worthy of death were quite varied...an Indian man who damaged a dam could be drowned near the scene of the crime; an Egyptian who injured a cat could be killed even though the cat lived; a Roman who sang unflattering songs about high-ranking officials might meet his end; a Babylonian merchant selling bad beer could be put to death; a Middle Eastern trial witness who committed perjury might be embalmed alive; and a Babylonian architect would be held responsible if his poorly constructed house fell in on the owner or his son...although the architect would simply be fined if the owner's wife or daughter were killed.

One thing you might notice if you look at capital punishment is that nobility or others of a high social rank were often killed more quickly/kindly than ordinary peasants. A public and torturous execution was meant to be a deterrent to the masses. After all, a quick and painless death might not seem like such a bad thing to someone struggling to survive on a daily basis.

Those of higher status were often allowed a more gracious exit...Socrates, for example, was given the choice of banishment or death by poisoning. He chose the poison, and spent the day surrounded by his family, friends, and followers. When the poison was delivered, he drank it and died in their company.

As civilizations have become more prosperous, capital punishment has fallen out of favor, or become as painless as thought possible. Life is worth more to society as a whole. Although some places (Texas?) have a high rate of executions, it's still better than, say, England during Henry VIII's reign. During his rule (1509-1547), over 65,000 hangings took place in England. The gallows were the site of weekly family gatherings, drunken revelry, and entertainment. And while the public spectacle was meant to be a deterrent to crime, pickpockets often worked the crowd as the hangman did his work.

Now, even though a prosperous country like the United States allows executions, they are private affairs. And they are not doled out for piddly crimes--they are reserved for those who themselves show no respect for human life.

Posted by Jennifer at 04:54 PM | Comments (1)

December 02, 2004

*Drawing and Quartering

In honor of certain court proceedings in California, let's take a look at capital punishment. Specifically, drawing and quartering.

This particular form of capital punishment was generally used on those convicted of treason, and was indeed the official punishment for treason in parts of Asia and Europe. There were two main procedures for drawing and quartering a person.

The first, and original, was used primarily in Russia. The person's arms and legs were tied to four different horses, which were then whipped to run in different directions. Any limbs not pulled off before the ropes broke were dislocated. After the horses had done their damage, the person was usually decapitated.

England developed another way to draw and quarter those convicted of treason. The man would be dragged on the ground by a horse to the site of his execution, where he would be hanged but not allowed to die. While hanging and alive, he was disemboweled. After watching his intestines burn in a fire, he was decapitated. Now dead, his body was cut into quarters.

The English method was intended to make the execution as big a spectacle as possible, in hopes of preventing future treasonous acts. The horse dragged the so-called traitor through town to bring as many spectators as possible to the event, and the quartering after death was clearly just for show.

The first man to meet his end by English-style drawing and quartering was David III, the last native Prince of Wales, who had fought for Welsh independence. In 1283, after being convicted of treason, he was publicly drawn and quartered. This remained the legal punishment for treason until Parliament outlawed it in 1870. Two Irish revolutionaries had been condemned to die this way, but there was a public outcry against such a cruel form of death. The last time it was carried out in England was 1820.

Posted by Jennifer at 04:57 PM | Comments (6)

December 01, 2004

*Crucifixion

In honor of certain court proceedings in California, let's take a look at capital punishment. Specifically, crucifixion.

Crucifixion, as the Romans used it, was considered to be the most ignoble and painful type of capital punishment. Only slaves and the very worst criminals were condemned to die in such a manner, and if the criminal could prove he was a Roman citizen, he was usually permitted to choose a different form of death. Courts in Rome proper were loath to administer the punishment of crucifixion, but it was more common in the outlying provinces and conquered territories.

The Romans did not invent crucifixion, although they were the more notorious users of it. Instead, it originated with the Phoenicians and was passed on most notably to the Assyrians, Carthaginians (who also used it in sacrifice), Egyptians, and Persians.

Originally, crucifers were simply hung from an upright pole. Eventually, the Romans developed various types of crosses...the well-known t-shape that Jesus was crucified upon, the y-shaped cross, the x-shaped cross (St. Andrew's cross), and a goalpost-shaped cross that wasn't used very often. This last shape was used for hanging the person by one arm and one leg. The most degrading form of crucifixion was to hang the person upside down, as was done to St. Peter.

Emperor Constantine abolished crucifixion in the Roman Empire in A.D. 315, but it was seen in other areas later than that. France used it mainly against Jews and heretics although an assassin was publicly crucified in 1127, and Japan used a form of the punishment as recently as the early 1800s.

Posted by Jennifer at 05:20 PM | Comments (3)

November 30, 2004

*Presidential Fun Fact

Maybe it was a military thing, but George Washington was very concerned with his appearance. His wig was powdered and his boots were polished multiple times a day. When he traveled, he kept a clean set of clothing with him so he could change just before arriving at his destination.

Posted by Jennifer at 02:07 PM | Comments (1)

November 10, 2004

Arafat Dead

After all the "he's dead"/"he's awake and smiling" conflicting reports, the official word is just...anti-climactic. I suppose since I believed the "he's dead" crowd, that's to be expected.

It will be interesting to see how things shake out, that's for sure. Perhaps it is wishful thinking that the Palestinians will get new leadership with a real interest in peace with Israel.

Posted by Jennifer at 10:44 PM | Comments (0)

November 01, 2004

*One Vote

In 1842, Indiana farmhand Henry Shoemaker promised Madison Marsh that he would vote for him in the race for state representative. When election day rolled around, Shoemaker was so busy at work that he almost forgot to vote. Luckily, he made it to the polls on time, and cast his vote. None of the tickets had all the candidates he wanted to vote for, however, and he took out his knife to cut out the appropriate names. However, the election inspector declared Shoemaker's ballot invalid.

Once the votes were tallied, the state representative's seat was tied. Shoemaker's ballot became subject of debate and hearings, and was finally counted, winning the race for Marsh by one vote.

A few months later, the newly elected Marsh and his fellow state legislators had to elect someone to be one of Indiana's U.S. senators. The first five votes amongst the legislators resulted in ties. Finally Marsh changed his vote on the sixth ballot, and elected Edward Hannegan to the U.S. Senate by one vote.

In 1846, the Senate was deeply divided over whether the United States should declare war on Mexico. The Senate vote was tied, but Senator Hannegan was not present. He was contacted and cast his vote for the war. The United States declared war on Mexico because of that one vote.

Posted by Jennifer at 12:53 PM | Comments (1)

October 18, 2004

Seeing History

As long as you asked...yes, I do like to fancy that I know a little bit about history.

Do you know about Neville Chamberlain?

Neville Chamberlain was the British Prime Minister before our friend Winston Churchill...and Chamberlain is the one most associated by many as Hitler's appeaser. Of course, Great Britain was in no shape to go to war with anybody at the time. WWI had left its mark, and the Depression didn't help matters. Besides simply allowing Hitler to reoccupy the Rhineland, reunite with Austria, and annex the Sudetenland, Great Britain entered into trade agreements with Eastern European countries. These agreements allowed the countries into the British market if they would restrict trade with the Germans. So while there was appeasement, there was also an attempt right from the beginning to contain Germany. These measures, though unsuccessful, were occurring while Great Britain frantically rearmed itself.

Do you know how the Nazis came to power?

Well, let's see. That's a pretty broad topic. Let's just start with the exile of Kaiser Wilhelm II. Germans weren't familiar with democracy. They lived under a monarchy with actual power, rather than a constitutional monarchy where the royal family only shows up to have their picture taken at important events. Kaiser Wilhelm II was important to Germans and their national identity. His exile created a vacuum. The Weimar era after WWI didn't fill that vacuum. Democracy was introduced to a country with no history of democracy. Americans in particular tend to take for granted that there will be support for democracy anywhere it is introduced, but that's just not true. When Hitler billed himself as a new version of Kaiser Wilhelm II, he was able to garner support from nationalistic Germans.

Of course, democracy meant there were political parties in play. The left was deeply divided between the Social Democrats and the Communists. Many of these people had suffered during the Depression and had little money. The right, on the other hand, was made up of big businesses with plenty of cash. The industrialists, tired of labor unions, wanted a return to a strong authoritarian nationalist rule that would bring labor down. Once the Nazis gained support from big business, they had plenty of money at their disposal. The fractured left wing couldn't keep the Nazis from rising to power. It's also interesting to note that the Social Democrats were more than happy to turn the Communists in to the Nazi leaders as the Nazis began taking over. Once the Communists were destroyed, the Nazis focused on the Social Democrats. The left was gone.

Quickly the Nazis suppressed civil liberties. Freedom of speech and the press were eradicated. Police could read private letters and search or seize whatever they wanted, and arrest whomever they wished. All the rights that had been ushered in after WWI were ushered right back out as Hitler worked towards silencing anyone who could challenge his supremacy--Jews, the Catholic Church, the Lutheran leadership, labor unions, intellectuals, etc.

Do you know how they were able to kill tens of millions of people before being stopped?

As I mentioned, Hitler ruthlessly suppressed dissent. The "Night of the Long Knives" illustrates his style vividly. Disloyal SA officers were killed, as well as all of his previous political opponents. Despite the heavy-handed tactics, Hitler was popular with German nationalists. He said he'd get rid of the left and he did. He reoccupied the Rhineland, reunited Austria with Germany, and annexed the Sudetenland. His rearmament provided jobs for Germans. When he was victorious against Poland, his popularity soared. Germans, dispirited after the Treaty of Versailles, were proud once more.

Do you know how they were stopped?

Let's dig slightly deeper than "Our grandfathers went to Europe and kicked his ass!"...a big reason Hitler was stopped was because he stopped himself. Not on purpose, mind you, but because his priorities were a little skewed. Conquering territory is all well and good, but it does create problems with resources. You need them. You need men and food and transportation and a million other things. Hitler's resources were spread thin, and they should have been concentrated on the front lines. Instead, resources were diverted away from the war effort. Where were they diverted to? The concentration camps. Officers and trains and supplies were pulled off the front lines to assist in the killing of Jews. Killing Jews was a higher priority than protecting Germany.

History is a funny thing. You'd think it would be pretty straightforward: this happened on this date, followed by this other thing that this guy did at a later date. But for something so many high school students see as static, history is actually quite fluid. People can see it in different ways. They can read what I've written and apply it to different situations. The "Bush is Hitler" camp can pull out the suppression of civil liberties part and apply it to the Patriot Act. People horrified by Iraq's mass graves can see similarities to Germany's concentration camps. The pro-war group can look at Neville Chamberlain and see Hans Blix. There are many different interpretations of history, and often what you see depends on what you want to see.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:00 AM | Comments (9)

October 14, 2004

See Your Smallpox and Raise You Syphilis

As many schoolchildren learn these days, Christopher Columbus and his sailors brought disease to the native people of the New World. What is less well known is that the native people of the New World probably returned the favor somewhat.

Shortly after Columbus and his crew returned to Europe, there was an outbreak of syphilis. An unusually bad strain of the disease spread swiftly, and within one year the outbreak hit France.

To help the disease spread throughout Europe, King Charles VIII of France conveniently marched an army of over 30,000 men to Naples. Prostitutes accompanied the men, and by the end of the two-year campaign the soldiers "violently drove out their harlots" from the camps. The soldiers blamed the women for spreading the disease amongst them.

After King Charles's army disbanded, soldiers recruited from Britain, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Switzerland returned to their homes and took syphilis with them. Charles himself supposedly carried the disease.

Of course, the clergy were more than happy to take the syphilis outbreak as a sign that God was displeased with Europe's rampant debauchery. Syphilis altered attitudes about sex, and suddenly extramarital affairs and prostitution were no longer tolerated. The Reformation came along and ushered in a puritanical outlook towards sex.

Many historically significant Europeans of the day allegedly suffered syphilis's effects, from Christopher Columbus to England's Henry VIII* to Popes Alexander Borgia and Julius II. Luckily, the particularly bad strain of the disease would become less dangerous to future generations.

*One may want to note that syphilis is likely to blame for Henry VIII's famous difficulty in producing heirs.

Posted by Jennifer at 07:00 AM | Comments (1)

October 13, 2004

Presidential Fun Fact of the Day Week

In the year before John Wilkes Booth shot and killed President Lincoln, his older brother was standing on a train platform in New Jersey. Edwin Booth was a famous actor of the time, and well recognized.

While the train was stopped, it unexpectedly rolled forward again while the waiting passengers stood against it. One young man lost his balance and was falling off the platform when Edwin Booth grabbed him and pulled him to safety. The young man was grateful to the actor for saving his life.

The young man was Robert Todd Lincoln, the President's son.

Robert provided the following account:

"The incident occurred while a group of passengers were late at night purchasing their sleeping car places from the conductor who stood on the station platform at the entrance of the car. The platform was about the height of the car floor, and there was of course a narrow space between the platform and the car body. There was some crowding, and I happened to be pressed by it against the car body while waiting my turn. In this situation the train began to move, and by the motion I was twisted off my feet, and had dropped somewhat, with feet downward, into the open space, and was personally helpless, when my coat collar was vigorously seized and I was quickly pulled up and out to a secure footing on the platform. Upon turning to thank my rescuer I saw it was Edwin Booth, whose face was of course well known to me, and I expressed my gratitude to him, and in doing so, called him by name."
Posted by Jennifer at 07:00 AM | Comments (2)

October 12, 2004

Braille Writing

Everybody knows some guy named Braille invented writing that could be read by the fingertips, right?

Well, kinda. Louis Braille actually improved upon the idea developed by Charles Barbier.

In the early 1800s, the French military captain wanted a way for the front line soldiers to read messages from the back when it was dark out. Normally, they'd have to get a light to read a message--exposing their position to the enemy. So Barbier came up with raising dots onto the surface of paper. He had twelve dots standing for various sounds.

Barbier decided to pass his new "night writing" onto the blind. One of the first to learn this new system was thirteen-year-old Louis Braille. Braille offered Barbier some ideas for making the system easier, but Barbier refused to make any changes based on the recommendations of a boy.

Braille, undeterred, contrived of a new system on his own. After two years, he had made this "night writing" into a simpler series of six dots standing for different letters of the alphabet. Today blind people read by using Braille rather than Barbier...but Louis Braille was always grateful to Barbier for the initial idea, and credited him for it.

Posted by Jennifer at 03:30 PM | Comments (1)

October 04, 2004

Who's the Best Pilot You Ever Saw?

Goodbye, Gordon Cooper.

"Leroy Gordon Cooper, one of the nation's first astronauts who once set a space endurance record by traveling more than 3.3 million miles aboard Gemini 5 in 1965, died on Monday, NASA said. He was 77."
Posted by Jennifer at 08:58 PM | Comments (4)

September 27, 2004

Presidential Fun Fact of the Day

Last week I was on a tour of a mansion that had dozens of family crests decorating the common room. It was pointed out that the George Washington family crest was perhaps the inspiration for the American flag:

wash_crest.jpg

The red stars and stripes aren't too big a leap to our own Stars and Stripes, are they?

At the very least, the Washington family's coat-of-arms is definitely responsible for the flag design for the District of Columbia:

dc_flag.jpg

Posted by Jennifer at 11:33 AM | Comments (0)

September 13, 2004

Female Circumcision, Part Two

In many Middle Eastern cultures, female circumcision as a tradition continued until the early 1900s. In some areas it is still practiced today.

Female circumcision was a necessary part of a female’s social status, as no Arab male would marry an uncircumcised female. Islamic women would have the clitoris removed as well as having the vaginal opening partially closed. This was in lieu of a chastity belt, and she would be surgically reopened when she married.

The Middle East was not the only area to practice modern mutilation of the female genitalia, however. Up until the late 1950s in America and Britain, there were arguments for removal of the prepuce. In 1958 a medical journal suggested this was a way to decrease female arousal, while another journal advocated the procedure to increase female arousal in wives who could not reach orgasm. Obviously there was a great deal of ignorance about female sexuality in the male-dominated medical community. Women’s liberation in the 60s and 70s cleared away the confusion.

Earlier than this, Victorian-era doctors prescribed the more invasive surgical removal of the ovaries for a wide variety of female complaints—from overeating to irritability to insanity. By 1906, approximately 150,000 American women had their ovaries removed for these types of reasons. Of course, until very recently, many women had hysterectomies unnecessarily. Medical knowledge is always progressing and changing the accepted treatments of various diseases.

Posted by Jennifer at 03:54 PM | Comments (5)

August 26, 2004

Rerun: Before McCarthy...

This was originally posted at my old site.

In the extended, a look at the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798.

As I mentioned in a previous post about France, America came close to a war with Napoleon in 1800.

War was averted, but anti-French feelings before and after the conflict abounded. The Federalist party capitalized by passing laws designed to reduce or quiet their political enemies.

In 1798, the Alien and Sedition Acts were aimed at these pro-Jeffersonian foes. The first of these oppressive laws was aimed at aliens. Most European immigrants lacked wealth and were therefore scorned by the aristocratic Federalist party. The aliens were welcomed as voters by the less prosperous and more democratic Jeffersonians. The law raised the residence requirements for immigrants wishing to become citizens from five years to fourteen. This drastic new law was meant to discourage and dishearten immigrants...it was also in violation of the traditional American policy of open-door hospitality and speedy assimilation.

Two additional Alien Laws struck heavily at "undesirable" immigrants. The president was empowered to deport dangerous foreigners in time of peace and to deport or detain them in time of hostilities. Though defensible as a war measure, this was an arbitrary grant of power contrary to the spirit of the Constitution. This law was never enforced.

However, one law that was enforced was the Sedition Act. It directly attacked two priceless freedoms guaranteed in the Constitution and the Bill of Rights: freedom of speech and freedom of the press. This law stipulated that anyone who impeded the policies of the government or falsely defamed its officials, including the president, would be subjected to heavy fines and imprisonment.

Many outspoken Jeffersonian editors were indicted under the Sedition Act, and ten were brought to trial. All were convicted. Congressman Matthew Lyon was sentenced to four months in jail for writing about President Adams's "unbounded thirst for ridiculous pomp, foolish adulation, and selfish avarice." Another culprit was lucky to get off with a fine of $100 after he expressed the wish that the wad of a cannon fired in honor of Adams had landed in the seat of the president's breeches. The spirit of the Sedition Act was in direct conflict with the Constitution.

The Supreme Court was dominated by Federalists who were of no mind to declare it unconstitutional. This attempt by the Federalists to crush free speech and silence dissenters undoubtedly made many converts for the Jeffersonians.

Even so, the Alien and Sedition Acts commanded widespread popular support. Anti-French hysteria played directly into the hands of witch-hunting conservatives. In the congressional elections of 1798-1799, the Federalists rode a wave of popularity to score the most sweeping victory of their entire history.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:00 AM | Comments (0)

Rerun: Before McCarthy...

This was originally posted at my old site.

In the extended, a look at the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798.

As I mentioned in a previous post about France, America came close to a war with Napoleon in 1800.

War was averted, but anti-French feelings before and after the conflict abounded. The Federalist party capitalized by passing laws designed to reduce or quiet their political enemies.

In 1798, the Alien and Sedition Acts were aimed at these pro-Jeffersonian foes. The first of these oppressive laws was aimed at aliens. Most European immigrants lacked wealth and were therefore scorned by the aristocratic Federalist party. The aliens were welcomed as voters by the less prosperous and more democratic Jeffersonians. The law raised the residence requirements for immigrants wishing to become citizens from five years to fourteen. This drastic new law was meant to discourage and dishearten immigrants...it was also in violation of the traditional American policy of open-door hospitality and speedy assimilation.

Two additional Alien Laws struck heavily at "undesirable" immigrants. The president was empowered to deport dangerous foreigners in time of peace and to deport or detain them in time of hostilities. Though defensible as a war measure, this was an arbitrary grant of power contrary to the spirit of the Constitution. This law was never enforced.

However, one law that was enforced was the Sedition Act. It directly attacked two priceless freedoms guaranteed in the Constitution and the Bill of Rights: freedom of speech and freedom of the press. This law stipulated that anyone who impeded the policies of the government or falsely defamed its officials, including the president, would be subjected to heavy fines and imprisonment.

Many outspoken Jeffersonian editors were indicted under the Sedition Act, and ten were brought to trial. All were convicted. Congressman Matthew Lyon was sentenced to four months in jail for writing about President Adams's "unbounded thirst for ridiculous pomp, foolish adulation, and selfish avarice." Another culprit was lucky to get off with a fine of $100 after he expressed the wish that the wad of a cannon fired in honor of Adams had landed in the seat of the president's breeches. The spirit of the Sedition Act was in direct conflict with the Constitution.

The Supreme Court was dominated by Federalists who were of no mind to declare it unconstitutional. This attempt by the Federalists to crush free speech and silence dissenters undoubtedly made many converts for the Jeffersonians.

Even so, the Alien and Sedition Acts commanded widespread popular support. Anti-French hysteria played directly into the hands of witch-hunting conservatives. In the congressional elections of 1798-1799, the Federalists rode a wave of popularity to score the most sweeping victory of their entire history.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:00 AM | Comments (0)

August 24, 2004

Rerun: History in the News

This was originally posted at my old site.

In the extended, a brief look at Truman, MacArthur, and Eisenhower.

This story (Ed. note: link now dead) about President Truman was in the news yesterday.

The employees of the Truman Presidential Library recently discovered his 1947 diary. As you may have noticed, I have a lot of interest in our American Presidents and like to find out little insights about them.

The diary is interesting because it confirms that Truman had discussed having Eisenhower run for president in 1948. The plan was that Truman would be the vice-presidential nominee.

During this time period, there was concern that General Douglas MacArthur would run for president...MacArthur was a World War II hero and Truman was not very popular. MacArthur remained with the military, however, and Truman was re-elected versus Republican Thomas E. Dewey (and the States' Rights candidate...Strom Thurmond).

In 1951, during the Korean War, President Truman and General MacArthur clashed on war strategies...President Truman fired the General on April 11. MacArthur addressed Congress a week later, "I now close my military career and just fade away--an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty. Goodbye." Eventually, MacArthur did fade away.

Eisenhower became a Republican president with his running mate Richard Nixon in 1953. He was the first Republican to hold the White House since 1928.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:00 AM | Comments (0)

August 16, 2004

Rerun: Vive La France

This entry was originally posted at my old site. It's a brief summary of the entwined histories of France and the U.S.A. with an editorial bent.

This isn't exactly a popular stance to take in America these days, but I have to say what I feel...I don't hate France.

They did us a pretty big favor back in the Revolutionary War days. Frenchmen sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to help us fight the British. One of their primary motivations was to stab Britain in the back, but it worked for us.

The French support of our war almost sent France into bankruptcy. The resulting economic hardship, coupled with American success at overthrowing an oppressive government, set the stage for the French Revolution in 1789.

Throughout the following century America and France had their share of ups and downs...as most relationships do. By the time 1800 rolled around, it looked like a war with Napoleon's France was inevitable. However, Napoleon had a change of heart regarding his interests in North America and we peacefully purchased the Louisiana Territory from him for $15 million in 1803.

For the American centennial in 1876, France wanted to do something nice for us. What they came up with was a 151'1" tall statue titled "Liberty Enlightening the World." Our Statue of Liberty arrived in 1885, and has grown from a symbol of the friendship between France and America to a global symbol of freedom.

During our country's formative years, the French were instrumental in helping us gain our independence. In the 20th century we had a chance to repay them. World War I began in the summer of 1914, and the U.S. remained neutral. For several years of fighting, the Germans attempted to take France. France and Great Britain kept the Germans from advancing, but after Germany began sinking unarmed ships America joined the Allies in 1917. The war was over in 1918.

Then came September 1, 1939...World War II began when Hitler's army invaded Poland. America declared its neutrality at once while Canada almost immediately declared war on Germany. By June, 1940 Germany controlled most of Europe. Paris had fallen when the French were pushed back by the German blitzkrieg. Great Britain stood alone against Hitler and within a month Italy joined the Axis. The United States remained neutral while Europe fell to Hitler's powerful military machine.

It wasn't until Pearl Harbor in December, 1941 that America entered the war. On June 6, 1944--four years after Paris fell--the Allies landed at Normandy. In 1945 the bloodiest war in history finally ended. Lots of people have been talking about how France "owes us" for World War II. My opinion is that we're even.

They don't owe us anything. We don't owe them anything.

Posted by Jennifer at 08:05 AM | Comments (0)

August 12, 2004

*War Games

The Olympics began in 776 B.C. and were held every four years in tribute to Zeus. The events were similar to warfare--throwing spears or rocks, wrestling, etc.

The Olympics continued until Roman Emperor Theodosius--a Christian convert--put an end to the games in 394 A.D.. The Olympics fell victim to his efforts to end pagan worship in the Roman Empire.

In 1892, Pierre de Coubertin proposed an Olympic revival. He thought the Games would help prepare France for a possible war with Germany, and in 1896 the modern Olympics debuted.

Many of the events are still reminiscent of the warfare games from the ancient Olympics--archery, javelin throwing, shot put, and of course wrestling.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:08 PM | Comments (1)

July 12, 2004

Rerun: Nice Try, But...

December 7, 1941 is a "date that will live in infamy," but few people remember February 23, 1942, the date the Japanese attacked the U.S. mainland.

A Japanese submarine fired 25 shells at an oil refinery at the edge of Ellwood Oil Field, twelve miles northwest of Santa Barbara. One shell actually hit on the rigging, causing minor damage. On its face, the shelling of Ellwood beach in 1942 was not a major event of the war. It injured no one and did a mere $500 damage to a shed and catwalk belonging to the Barnsdall-Rio Grande Oil Co.

Yet, for a country still recovering from the Pearl Harbor attack just two months before, the 5-inch shells were enough to scare many into the belief that Japan could wage war on mainland American soil. After all, this was the first enemy attack on U.S. shores since the War of 1812.

The attack quickened the round-up of Japanese Americans in internment camps for the remainder of the war, a move Franklin D. Roosevelt had authorized just four days earlier. Seven months later, Japan struck the U.S. mainland once more...on September 9, 1942 a Japanese bomber hit the uninhabited mountains east of Brookings, Oregon.

The idea was conceived by the Japanese imperial general staff, still smarting from General Jimmy Doolittle's Tokyo raid. To retaliate, the Japanese hatched a plan to set the Oregon forests afire. They expected the flames to spread to the cities and panic the entire West Coast. However, three of the bombs were duds; the fourth started a small blaze that was quickly spotted and doused by forest rangers.

I was unable to find any documentation on whether the Japanese attempted to acquire sharks with laser beams attached to their heads. It is possible they found some mutated sea bass.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:00 AM | Comments (3)

Rerun: Nice Try, But...

December 7, 1941 is a "date that will live in infamy," but few people remember February 23, 1942, the date the Japanese attacked the U.S. mainland.

A Japanese submarine fired 25 shells at an oil refinery at the edge of Ellwood Oil Field, twelve miles northwest of Santa Barbara. One shell actually hit on the rigging, causing minor damage. On its face, the shelling of Ellwood beach in 1942 was not a major event of the war. It injured no one and did a mere $500 damage to a shed and catwalk belonging to the Barnsdall-Rio Grande Oil Co.

Yet, for a country still recovering from the Pearl Harbor attack just two months before, the 5-inch shells were enough to scare many into the belief that Japan could wage war on mainland American soil. After all, this was the first enemy attack on U.S. shores since the War of 1812.

The attack quickened the round-up of Japanese Americans in internment camps for the remainder of the war, a move Franklin D. Roosevelt had authorized just four days earlier. Seven months later, Japan struck the U.S. mainland once more...on September 9, 1942 a Japanese bomber hit the uninhabited mountains east of Brookings, Oregon.

The idea was conceived by the Japanese imperial general staff, still smarting from General Jimmy Doolittle's Tokyo raid. To retaliate, the Japanese hatched a plan to set the Oregon forests afire. They expected the flames to spread to the cities and panic the entire West Coast. However, three of the bombs were duds; the fourth started a small blaze that was quickly spotted and doused by forest rangers.

I was unable to find any documentation on whether the Japanese attempted to acquire sharks with laser beams attached to their heads. It is possible they found some mutated sea bass.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:00 AM | Comments (3)

July 06, 2004

Rerun: Tell Me a Story...

(This was originally posted at my old site.)

Anecdotal history is one of the most valuable resources we have for understanding the past. History is rarely an exact science. A lot of times we weigh the evidence, look at the circumstances, and make an educated guess. It's more or less a leap of faith.

For example, I once was in a hurry to get to work and was surprised to find a large yet loose group of muscular men congregating directly in my path. Me being me, I went through the crowd and then realized why they were there. In the middle of the group was Louis Farrakhan. I knew who he was and we smiled at each other, exchanged "Good mornings," and I proceeded on my way. I had barreled through his phalanx of Nation of Islam bodyguards.

Can I prove this story is true? No, I can not. With great effort, I could probably prove we were in the same building on the same day at roughly the same time. So you'll have to decide if this sounds like something I'd make up...or trust me.

One of my ancestors...I believe it was my great-great-great grandfather...told his granddaughter about how he ran away at age 12 to join the Illinois Volunteers' Drum Corps during the Civil War. He stayed with them until his father (also fighting in the Civil War) found him and sent him home.

Since I don't have my genealogical research right in front of me, I can't say if he was great x 3 or great x 2, but I don't think that little fact diminishes the story, do you?

I also haven't yet found documentation to prove his account, so he could be a big, fat liar. Or the granddaughter who claims he told her about this might be a big, fat liar.

BUT if you look at other anecdotal history, the story seems quite plausible. The interesting part of the story isn't necessarily that this specific person did what they said they did...the interesting part of the story is any 12 year old boy running off to the Civil War. And evidence suggests that sort of thing did happen.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:00 AM | Comments (0)

Rerun: Tell Me a Story...

(This was originally posted at my old site.)

Anecdotal history is one of the most valuable resources we have for understanding the past. History is rarely an exact science. A lot of times we weigh the evidence, look at the circumstances, and make an educated guess. It's more or less a leap of faith.

For example, I once was in a hurry to get to work and was surprised to find a large yet loose group of muscular men congregating directly in my path. Me being me, I went through the crowd and then realized why they were there. In the middle of the group was Louis Farrakhan. I knew who he was and we smiled at each other, exchanged "Good mornings," and I proceeded on my way. I had barreled through his phalanx of Nation of Islam bodyguards.

Can I prove this story is true? No, I can not. With great effort, I could probably prove we were in the same building on the same day at roughly the same time. So you'll have to decide if this sounds like something I'd make up...or trust me.

One of my ancestors...I believe it was my great-great-great grandfather...told his granddaughter about how he ran away at age 12 to join the Illinois Volunteers' Drum Corps during the Civil War. He stayed with them until his father (also fighting in the Civil War) found him and sent him home.

Since I don't have my genealogical research right in front of me, I can't say if he was great x 3 or great x 2, but I don't think that little fact diminishes the story, do you?

I also haven't yet found documentation to prove his account, so he could be a big, fat liar. Or the granddaughter who claims he told her about this might be a big, fat liar.

BUT if you look at other anecdotal history, the story seems quite plausible. The interesting part of the story isn't necessarily that this specific person did what they said they did...the interesting part of the story is any 12 year old boy running off to the Civil War. And evidence suggests that sort of thing did happen.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:00 AM | Comments (0)

July 04, 2004

4th of July

Here are some patriotic facts for you.

It may be too late this year, but here are some places you can visit next year.

Our nation declared its independence on July 4, 1776. Our independence became official on April 17, 1783 with the ratification of the Treaty of Paris, but the fight for freedom and liberty continues every day.

Celebrate it and protect it. Most importantly, thank those who protect our freedom on our behalf. You can start here.

Posted by Jennifer at 06:00 AM | Comments (1)

June 28, 2004

French History: Before the Armistice

Previous entry: Dunkirk.

The Dunkirk evacuation lasted from May 27 through June 3 (1940). Private boats saved 26,000 troops after the evacuation was made public in Britain on May 30. There were no journalists in Dunkirk, so the British government was able to control media information on what was happening. They were also able to spin it as they wished, and told the journalists that the French were to blame for their own defeat due to their lack of fighting, which was completely unfounded and unfair. Britain's Royal Air Force remained grounded throughout the German attack, and Churchill refused to send more troops to France.

France felt betrayed by Britain's limited military assistance and perceived attitude of self-preservation. The feeling was that Britain placed their own self-interests above that of the alliance with France. In the long-term, Britain's actions saved their forces, but this was little consolation for a country facing total defeat and occupation.

The days before France sought an armistice with Germany were chaotic. Communication between France and England was difficult as the Germans rolled through the country, and confusion set in. On June 10, the government evacuated Paris and Prime Minister Reynaud called on the United States for assistance. On June 11, Churchill flew to Briare to meet with the French. France believed now was the time to make the decisive fight against Germany, but Churchill disagreed. Britain would try to weather the coming months and attempt to win France back later on. Churchill offered to send one army division, but would not promise any more before the new year. Marshal Petain responded, "In 1918, I gave you forty divisions to save the British army. Where are the forty British divisions that would be needed to save ourselves today?"

On June 12, Churchill informed his cabinet that France would soon be lost. The next day, June 13, a response came from President Roosevelt: America was doing all it could to supply the Allies, and would not promise additional assistance. This was a huge blow to France and Britain both. Churchill had expected the United States to be in the war within two weeks.

Churchill flew to Tours to meet with Reynaud, who asked to be released from the French-British agreement not to seek individual peace with Germany. Reynaud said bitterly, "it is quite natural for Britain to continue (fighting), given that until today she has not suffered much." Churchill would not discuss the matter and went back to England. What Reynaud did not tell him was that the French cabinet wanted to meet with Churchill before voting whether or not to seek an armistice with Germany. Churchill's failure to show made the argument for a separate armistice stronger. It looked like Britain didn't care.

On June 16, Britain offered to let France out of their peace agreement with instructions to send the French fleet immediately to England so it would be saved from the Germans. When the French cabinet met and read the message, the part about the fleet was omitted. They thought this was another indication Britain had abandoned them. Reynaud resigned as Prime Minister and Petain replaced him. The next day, France asked Germany for an armistice.

Posted by Jennifer at 04:15 PM | Comments (1)

June 21, 2004

French History: Dunkirk

Previous entry: The Occupation.

I'm going to revisit a part of the German invasion that I touched on only briefly in my last post. Frankly, it is too good of a story to miss the opportunity to tell it. Some of you know it, but some of you probably don't--the evacuation/rescue/retreat at Dunkirk.

On May 10, 1940, Germany invaded France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. Within ten days they reached the English Channel and cut France off from Belgium and the Netherlands. Hundreds of thousands of soldiers were pushed onto the beach of Dunkirk, France. Over 900 vessels arrived to aid in evacuating the troops. Besides the naval ships, common citizens of Great Britain brought their private boats across the Channel to help out. German planes overhead were firing on the targets below, but over 338,000 British and French soldiers were saved.

First of all, think about the logistics of this. Over 300,000 soldiers. I'll give you a moment to consider the number of soldiers America has in the Middle East now...

Okay, moving on. Besides showing incredible bravery on the part of ordinary citizens, this rescue was a very important moment in WWII. Britain's army would have been hard-pressed to recover if that many soldiers had been lost. It was a tactical blunder on Hitler's part. Instead of letting his ground troops move in and finish the job, he wanted his air force to do it. This caused a pause in the fighting that gave the majority of the soldiers a chance to escape.

After Dunkirk, it was only a matter of time before the Germans would take Paris. On June 14, after 92,000 French soldiers were killed, 250,000 were wounded, and 1.45 million were captured, the Germans marched into the French capitol. The Republic was removed from power and Philippe Petain became the new Prime Minister. On June 22, the two countries signed an armistice. Hitler made the French sign it in the same railroad car where Germany surrendered in WWI. The Vichy government was officially installed soon after.

Next entry: Before the Armistice

Posted by Jennifer at 09:09 AM | Comments (0)

June 11, 2004

Goodbye, President Reagan

I watched Ronald Reagan's funeral on television. I'm working today, but we have a breakroom with a TV. This is the first presidential state funeral in my lifetime, and I've found the whole week fascinating from a historical standpoint.

I work in a union shop which leans left politically, so I was able to watch the proceedings alone and mostly uninterrupted. Occasionally a co-worker would walk by and ask if I was a Reagan fan. The co-worker I make fun of on this site from time to time was heard to go on for about five minutes sarcastically that "a funeral is tops on (her) list of things to watch." I turned the volume up to drown her out until she shut the hell up. Other than that, I was able to view the proceedings in peace.

The speakers were all very good, although GWB's eulogy dragged on a bit for my tastes. His story about the kid's disaster of a room was my favorite.

My heart has broken for Nancy all week. When she was thanked (by Dennis Hastert?) in the Capitol Rotunda for sharing her husband with the rest of us, that really underscored the way I feel about all the First Ladies. They are dragged into the spotlight (some have danced into it, but that's the exception rather than the rule), and the spotlight has never shown brighter on Nancy than it has this week.

One of my favorite quotes comes from Nancy Reagan:

A woman is like a teabag--only in hot water do you realize how strong she is.

Posted by Jennifer at 01:02 PM | Comments (8)

June 06, 2004

Ronald Reagan

I thought about a few different ways to post about his death from a historical point of view, but I really don't think I have anything to add beyond what has been covered by other bloggers and the mainstream media.

So I'll editorialize instead.

Ronald Reagan is to the Republicans what John Kennedy is to the Democrats. An icon. A beloved president.

Anyone who would rejoice over his death is immature and, frankly, pretty stupid. John Kennedy died over 40 years ago. Did it mark the end of the Democrats? No. Reagan left office over 15 years ago. Did the Republicans fall apart? No.

Lack of empathy is something leftists love to throw at George W. Bush. Lack of empathy is something a few leftists are exhibiting now.

A man died. A husband died. His wife has been watching him fade away for ten years. His children have watched him forget who they even are.

There are no political points to be made here. You don't have to shed any tears, but show a little humanity.

Posted by Jennifer at 07:08 PM | Comments (2)

June 05, 2004

Sad News

President Reagan has passed away. I'll have a post about him up by Monday.

(Unlike me, the media has been planning this for about ten years. Coverage here, here, here, etc.)

Posted by Jennifer at 06:03 PM | Comments (0)

June 04, 2004

Sidenote

How looney do you think someone had to be for Hitler to refer to him as the crazy one?

(Less biased bio here.)

Posted by Jennifer at 11:52 AM | Comments (0)

June 03, 2004

French History: The Occupation

This series is by no means a comprehensive history of France, but may put WWII in some context.

Brief Introduction.
Culture Before WWII.
Politics Before WWII, Part One.
Politics Before WWII, Part Two.

As we prepare to commemorate D-Day, I wanted to take a look at France from a different point of view. Obviously, being American, most of what I learned in history classes was very America-centric. World War II began with Pearl Harbor, took a detour to Normandy, and ended in Hiroshima. Right? My personal interest in history has led me to research times and places of interest to me. I’ve learned more about history after college than I did in college—and that was my major. Armed with the remnants of my college French, I’ve managed to make my way through a French book or two.

There is a popular misconception that France hasn’t “owned up” to its past, but the Occupation is the most-studied period of French history. True, in the period following the war, the Occupation was romanticized; history from 1945 until 1965 focused on the Resistance. Well, of course it did—the Resistance leaders were in charge of France after the war. After this period of historical slant, there was a backlash. Movies and books that were extremely critical of the French collaboration with Germany were popular in the 1970s.

As with most any period or event in history, there are different sides to the story. The Vichy government persecuted Jews, Freemasons, and Communists. But French Jews were more likely to survive the Holocaust than Jews in other occupied countries. The Vichy government collaborated with Germany. But France had a long history of diplomatic cooperation with Germany. The Vichy government was installed after the Republic was displaced by Germany. But the Republic was already faltering before Hitler’s armies marched into Paris, and the Vichy government had roots extending back for decades. The French are cheese-eating surrender monkeys. But their military was in bad shape after World War I and their economy wasn’t much better…and they’re not the only ones who signed the Munich Agreement in 1938.

One thing that struck me as I was talking to people about this series of posts was the belief that Germany showed up and rolled straight through to Paris and occupied all of France. In truth, the French—with help from British forces—fought the Germans for six weeks before they were simply overwhelmed. The British troops left their equipment behind and quickly evacuated, along with some French leaders who would form the Free French under Charles de Gaulle in London. Germany occupied the northern portion of France, including Paris, in order to put pressure on Great Britain. They allowed an “independent” French government to exist in southern France (headquartered in Vichy).

One thing that is important to point out is the separation between French government and the general public. During the Occupation, 650,000 French civilians were forced to work in German factories. About 60,000 non-Jewish French people were deported to the concentration camps. About 30,000 French civilians were killed as hostages or for being members of the Resistance. About 75,000 French Jews died in Auschwitz. The French public was almost universally hostile towards the Germans throughout the occupation, and their disenchantment with the Vichy government was swift.

Within its own agenda, the Vichy government had its own anti-Semitic program and even imposed some policies beyond what the Germans dictated. The general population, however, was mostly indifferent to the Jews rather than blatantly anti-Semitic. After the war most French Jews just wanted to fit back into French society. They blamed the Germans rather than the French.

(This is a general overview of Occupied France. I will go into more detail with my next posts for those who are interested.)

Next: Dunkirk.

Posted by Jennifer at 01:30 PM | Comments (3)

June 02, 2004

*French History: Politics Before WWII, Part Two

This series is by no means a comprehensive history of France, but may put WWII in some context.

Brief Introduction.
Culture Before WWII.
Politics Before WWII, Part One.

The Depression hit France later than most countries, but it also lasted longer. In 1939, production levels were still lower than they had been a decade earlier. The French government took an almost lackadaisical attitude towards the economic crisis. The lower classes were hardest hit, and this helped set the stage for class polarization at the same time that political polarization was occurring.

Parliament’s ineffectiveness was due in large part to the refusal of the political parties to work together. In particular, the Socialists refused to work with the Radicals. Between 1932 and 1934, nothing got done in the French government. In October 1933, the Socialist party split as 28 members rebelled over their group’s refusal to cooperate with the Radicals. In February 1934, riots broke out. When the new parliament was seated, reforms were proposed that would keep such a deadlock from happening again. Unfortunately, the right-wing did not act quickly enough and gave the left-wing time to spin the reforms as a new form of Bonapartism. The reforms failed to pass.

Anti-parliamentary groups were materializing in the early 1930s. One of the most powerful groups was the right-wing Croix de feu, which had begun as a war veterans group in 1928. In 1931, the group was opened up to the general public and moved into politics. Paramilitary organizations cropped up within the group, and by the end of 1935 it boasted over 300,000 members. The group promoted themselves in a way that exuded menace and strength. Membership was mostly lower-middle class and urban. The group had a fascist bent that was historically downplayed until recently.

The left-wing answer to the Croix de feu and the Depression was the Popular Front. With Hitler rising in power, the left knew that it would be dangerous to continue their political disunity. The Communist Party, which historically maintained a policy of sectarianism, joined the Socialists and Radicals. Stalin was courting France as an ally against Hitler, which made the French Communists unwilling to damage France’s ability to defend herself and pull herself out of economic crisis.

In May 1936, the Popular Front won the elections and the Socialists became France’s largest parliamentary party while the Communists’ votes doubled. In June they passed a law that ended the Croix de feu and paramilitarism. The Popular Front was perceived as an attack on bourgeois society, and the upper class feared the end of their social space. The threat of communism was becoming a larger concern than the threat of fascism, and by 1938 the Radicals drifted to the political right to combat the rise of communism. This ended the Popular Front’s coalition.

The anti-left furor led to a radicalization of the right-wing. Groups popped up vowing to fight communism by any means necessary. To that end, arms caches were prepared throughout the country, and terrorist attacks were made in 1937. The boundaries between the parliamentary right and the extreme right were blurring, and the former leader of Croix de feu established a new group with approximately 1.5 million members. It favored an authoritarian-populist form of government and was the largest political group in France. Anti-communism was also showing up in some left-wing groups such as the Socialists and trade unions.

At this time, France was still recovering from World War I emotionally. The horror of war had bred pacifism in a significant percentage of the population. The military was not prepared for any kind of fighting, and the economy was ravaged by the Depression. Hitler was rearming his military in defiance of the limits placed on Germany after WWI. There were calls for the rearmament of France, but the nation was war-weary and cash-poor.

The Occupation.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:30 PM

*French History: Politics Before WWII, Part One

This series is by no means a comprehensive history of France, but may put WWII in some context.

Brief Introduction.
Culture Before WWII.

The Third Republic was troubled from the start. Calls for reform began almost immediately after its formation in the 1870s and grew more intense after World War I. The lack of a promised strong executive branch led to problems within the government, and the Republic was fading well before 1940.

When the Third Republic's Constitution was adopted, a system of checks and balances was put in place that was supposed to make government more efficient under a strong executive. In reality, the democratically-elected Lower House had most of the power and the President was relegated to the role of figurehead. The Upper House, or Senate, had limited power as well.

Unlike the Senate, the Lower House consisted of men who were not socially elite. They were schoolteachers, rural leaders, etc. The democratization of French politics began a chasm between political institutions and the social elites. In the aftermath of the Dreyfus Affair, the Radical Party came into power. With them came the elites' worst nightmare: the career politician. One of the first things the Radicals did was raise their political salaries.

Several groups popped up to address the growing disillusionment with the Republic. One of them was led by Charles Maurras, who founded Action francaise, which was a monarchist group that was particularly influential in the 1920s. His group was intellectual rather than political and attracted a healthy following of students from the French Quarter. The group faded around 1926 when the Vatican condemned it. Already some younger members had grown impatient with its lack of action and moved on to more radical movements.

The reform groups that grew out of the political right generally had the same goals, including but not limited to: modernization and technical competence, efficiency and organization, and a stronger executive branch. Unfortunately, the groups lacked charismatic leaders to help push their agenda. Even with a right-wing majority in Parliament in 1919, the right-wing reform movement was stalled. The post-war government was preoccupied with reconstruction, inflation, and budget problems.

The left-wing reform groups also had their goals: streamlined government, educational reforms which would give all children the same education until age 13, nationalization of key industries, and a restructuring of politics that would place the economy first. Like the right, the left failed to see their ideology through. Financial crises kept the government from making any real changes in the late 1910s and early 1920s.

By 1926 France was enjoying a booming economy and financial stability. Reformists once again moved to the forefront. At this time fractured political groups were moving to realign with one another, and parliamentary fighting undermined the reform movements. A modernization bill that had been the subject of much fanfare was never even voted on. In 1932 the Depression caught up with France and politics became even more volatile.

Politics Before WWII, Part Two.

Posted by Jennifer at 11:57 AM

June 01, 2004

*French History: Culture Before WWII

This series is by no means a comprehensive history of France, but may put WWII in some context.

Brief Introduction.

France was the most populous country in Europe until the early 1800s. Before World War I, they enjoyed cultural dominance in the arts, and their cinema was more important than America's. French was the language of diplomacy.

Between 1871 and 1911, the population of France grew only 8.6% compared to Great Britain's 54% growth and Germany's 60% growth. The government encouraged people to have large families in an attempt to increase birth rates. In the midst of this concern with population came WWI--and severe French casualties. No other power suffered a higher percentage of losses. The French began to fear their country would be lost simply because there wouldn't be any French people left. Anti-abortion laws were passed, monetary prizes were given to fathers of ten or more children, and government programs encouraged reproduction.

Before WWI, French artists had been moving towards modernism. The French cinema was dominant. After WWI, the American cinema displaced French cinema. France had shut down movie production during the war, and American movies filled the void. Threatened by American values and spurred by French nationalism, French art and literature moved away from modernism and back to classical French. In 1928, France placed a quota on imported films meant to limit access to American films. Several French books in the 1920s and 1930s examined the changing roles of America versus Europe. After the Depression, America seemed less threatening, but was still highly criticized by nationalistic writers and intellectuals in France.

At the Paris conference following WWI, English was recognized as a diplomatic language equal to French for the first time. This came as a bit of a blow to the French, who had viewed America with vague condescension before the war. English's inclusion was an indicator of America's growing stature in world affairs.

France saw nationalism grow after 1918. This resulted from the war and fears of lessening importance. Immigrants were less welcome, and anti-Semitism was becoming more open. The Dreyfus affair had already brought some of that out, but writers such as Morand and Celine became flagrantly anti-Semitic in the 1930s.

Politics Before WWII, Part One.

Posted by Jennifer at 11:00 AM | Comments (1)

*French History: A Starting Point

I'm planning a series of posts about France this week leading up to the 60th anniversary of D-Day.

This site provides a general timeline and overview of various periods of French history...I highly recommend a visit if you need to refresh your knowledge a bit. It may help put my upcoming posts in perspective.

Culture Before WWII.

Posted by Jennifer at 12:00 AM

May 03, 2004

This Week

May 3
* This day is UN Press Freedom Day.
* 1971--National Public Radio debuted.

May 4
* 1961--The Freedom Riders began their journey.
* 1970--Kent State Vietnam War demonstration.

May 5
* 1862--Battle of Puebla in Mexico.
* 1904--Cy Young pitched baseball's first perfect game.

May 6
* 1937--Hindenberg disaster.

May 7
* 1945--Germany's surrender to Allied Forces.
* 1954--Vietnam's victory over France at Dien Bien Phu ended the Indochina War.

May 8
* 1884--Harry Truman was born.
* 1945--Germany's second surrender/V-E Day.

Posted by Jennifer at 12:21 PM | Comments (0)

April 19, 2004

Never Forget

Today is Yom HaShoah, or Holocaust Memorial Day.

U.S. Holocaust Museum

Posted by Jennifer at 10:43 AM | Comments (0)

The Week in History

April 19
* 1775-The Battle of Lexington and Concord began the American Revolution.
* 1943-Warsaw Ghetto Revolt.
* 1995-Oklahoma City bombing.

April 20
* 1889-Adolf Hitler was born.
* 1999-Columbine High School massacre.

April 21
* 1836-Day to commemorate the Battle of San Jacinto, in which Texas won independence from Mexico.
* 1926-Queen Elizabeth II was born.

April 22
* 1864-By an act of Congress, "In God We Trust" was stamped on all U.S. coins.
* 1870-Nikolai Lenin was born.
* 1936-Jack Nicholson was born.

April 23
* 1564-William Shakespeare was born.
* 1616-William Shakespeare died.
* 1635-The oldest public school in the United States opened--the Boston Latin School.
* 1791-Future president James Buchanan was born.

April 24
* 1800-The Library of Congress was created.
* 1942-Barbra Streisand was born.

April 25
* 1901-New York became the first state to require automobile license plates.
* 1990-The Hubble Telescope was deployed.

Posted by Jennifer at 07:00 AM | Comments (0)

April 18, 2004

The Regulars Are Out!

Today is the anniversary of the ride of Paul Revere. All American schoolchildren learn that Revere rode through the streets of Lexington and Concord shouting "The British are coming!" to warn of the imminent attack of redcoats.

What doesn't always get mentioned in the classroom is the fact Paul Revere was accompanied by William Dawes in Lexington. The two were joined around midnight by Dr. Samuel Prescott and set off for Concord. Spotted by British patrol, Revere was detained while Dawes and Prescott escaped. Dawes was thrown from his horse and walked back to Lexington. Prescott leapt a fence with his horse and went on to warn Concord.

Paul Revere was released by the British, who kept his horse. He returned to Lexington on foot. Prescott is the one who actually got the warning out that saved the ammunition and weapons that would be used the next day at the Battle of Lexington and Concord.

And by the way, they didn't run about yelling "The British are coming!" either. The title of this post is what was really said.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:55 PM | Comments (1)

April 12, 2004

This Week in History

April 12
*1861: Fort Sumter was the site of the beginning of the Civil War.
*1947: David Letterman was born.
*1955: It was announced that Jonas E. Salk had developed a polio vaccine.
*1961: Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space, orbiting Earth in Vostok I.
*1981: The space shuttle Columbia took her maiden flight with John Young and Robert Crippen on board. It was America's first manned flight since 1976.

April 13
*1743: Thomas Jefferson was born.

April 14
*1828: Noah Webster published the first American English dictionary.
*1865: Abraham Lincoln was shot. He died the next day.

April 15
*1912: Titanic sunk at 2:27 a.m. (Aside--while watching the movie in the theater, a girl friend of mine leaned over during the part when Jack was frozen and Rose had to pry his hand off hers to let him go. The friend whispered, "He's Jack Frost." Now I laugh inappropriately every time I see that scene.)

April 16
*1862: Slavery was abolished in D.C. and Congress appropriated $1,000,000 to compensate slave owners for their loss. They also set aside $100,000 to pay travel expenses for former slaves who wanted to relocate to Haiti, Liberia, or elsewhere.
*1889: Charlie Chaplin was born.

April 17
*1961: Bay of Pigs Invasion.

April 18
*1775: Paul Revere took a ride.
*1906: Nearly 4,000 people died in the San Francisco earthquake.
*1923: Yankee Stadium opened.

Posted by Jennifer at 02:40 PM | Comments (1)

March 29, 2004

*This Week in History

March 29-April 4 events of note in the extended.

March 29
* 1790: John Tyler was born.
* 1867: Denton True "Cy" Young was born.
* 1961: Washington, D.C. residents were given the right to vote in presidential elections.

March 30
* 1842: Anesthetic was used in surgery for the first time.
* 1853: Vincent Van Gogh was born.
* 1945: Eric Clapton was born.
* 1981: John Hinckley, Jr. shot President Reagan in the chest. Hinckley was later found not guilty by reason of insanity.

March 31
* 1889: The Eiffel Tower was built for the Paris International Exhibition.
* 1959: The Dalai Lama fled Tibet and was given asylum in India.

April 1
* 1970: President Nixon signed a ban on radio and television cigarette ads.

April 2
* 1792: The first United States mint was established in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
* 1805: Hans Christian Andersen was born.
* 1914: Sir Alec Guinness was born.

April 3
* 1860: The Pony Express was born.
* 1948: The Marshall Plan was created to help Europe recover from WWII. More than $12 billion in aid was distributed.
* 1995: Sandra Day O'Connor became the first woman to preside over the Supreme Court. Chief Justice Rehnquist and second in seniority Justice Stevens were both out of town.

April 4
* 1949: NATO was created when the North Atlantic Treaty was signed.

Posted by Jennifer at 02:15 PM

March 22, 2004

This Week

March 22
*1931--William Shatner was born.
*1995--A Russian cosmonaut returned to Earth after a record 439 days in space aboard Mir.

March 23
*1775--Patrick Henry gave his "give me liberty or give me death" speech.

March 24
*1874--Harry Houdini was born in Budapest, Hungary.
*1934--FDR signed a bill granting independence to the Philippines, which took effect 7/4/1946.
*1989--The Exxon Valdez ran aground, spilling 11 million gallons of oil.

March 25
*1911--In New York City, 146 workers died in an 18-minute fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist factory. The ninth floor door locked many of the workers in, and health and safety reforms soon followed the tragedy.
*1942--Aretha Franklin was born.
*1947--Elton John was born.

March 26
*1874--Robert Frost was born.
*1911--Tennessee Williams was born.
*1930--Sandra Day O'Connor was born.
*1973--My favorite soap opera, The Young and The Restless, debuted.
*1979--The Camp David Accord was signed, ending 30 years of war between Israel and Egypt.

March 27
*1963--Quentin Tarantino was born.
*1977--In the Canary Islands two Boeing 747s collided on the ground, killing 570 people.

March 28
*1881--James A. Bailey and P.T. Barnum merged their two circuses.
*1979--The Three Mile Island nuclear accident happened.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:48 AM | Comments (0)

March 19, 2004

Women's History

Here is an article that may interest some of you history buffs.

Posted by Jennifer at 10:55 AM | Comments (2)

March 15, 2004

*This Week

March 15
*The Ides of March. This is the day Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 B.C. In the Roman calendar, the days of the month were not sequential. Instead, there were three division days--kalends, nones, and ides. The days were numbered from those divisions. The ides were on the 15th of each month except in months with fewer than 31 days (then the ides were the 13th).
*Andrew Jackson was born in 1767.
*Ruth Bader Ginsburg was born in 1933.

March 16
*In 1827, the first black newspaper in the United States was founded. Freedom's Journal was published in New York City.
*James Madison was born in 1751.
*The U.S. Military Academy at West Point was founded in 1802.

March 17
*St. Patrick's Day honors Bishop Patrick (AD 389-461), who introduced Christianity to Ireland.
*In 1992, South African whites voted to end white minority rule by 68.6% of the white-only vote.

March 18
*Colonel Leonov of the Soviet Union left his space capsule Voskhod 2 for 20 minutes. He was the first man to leave a spaceship.
*Grover Cleveland was born in 1837.

March 19
*In 1918, Congress passed the Standard Time Act which resulted in U.S. time zones and established Daylight Savings Time to save fuel for the country (which was fighting World War I).
*Wyatt Earp was born in 1848.

March 20
*Mister Rogers was born in 1928.

March 21
*More than 3,000 demonstrators followed Martin Luther King, Jr. on a march from Selma, Alabama to Montgomery in 1965. They were demanding federal protection of voting rights.
*Johann Sebastian Bach was born in 1685.

Posted by Jennifer at 10:06 AM | Comments (1)

March 08, 2004

This Week

March 8--United Nations Day for Women's Rights and International Peace.

March 9--In 1959, Barbie dolls made their retail debut.

This is also the birth anniversary of Amerigo Vespucci. He participated in at least two expeditions from 1499-1502 to South America. He wasn't as famous as Columbus, but thanks to a German mapmaker we Americans aren't Columbians.

March 10--In 1862, United States paper money was issued in denominations of $5 (Hamilton), $10 (Lincoln), and $20 (Liberty).

In 1913, Harriet Tubman died.

March 11--On this day in 1918, the first cases of "Spanish" flu were reported in the U.S. when 107 soldiers in Fort Riley, Kansas became sick. By the end of 1920, almost 25% of Americans had contracted the disease. More than 1% of the global population--22 million people--died.

March 12--In 1938, Germany tested their war readiness as well as other countries' response by invading Austria.

March 13--Uranus was discovered in 1781 by Sir William Herschel. (Ed: Lame jokes soon followed.)

March 14--Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany in 1879.

Posted by Jennifer at 12:54 PM | Comments (1)

March 01, 2004

February 27, 2004

*February 27

1991--Kuwait was liberated 4 days after the ground offensive began in Desert Storm.

1950--the 22nd Amendment was passed, limiting the president to two terms.

1807--Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was born.

Happy birthday to Elizabeth Taylor (1932) and Ralph Nader (1934).

Posted by Jennifer at 01:40 PM

February 25, 2004

*February 25

1964-At the age of 22, Cassius Clay defeated Sonny Liston to become the heavyweight boxing champion.

1791- The first national bank was chartered. The First Bank of the U.S. was opened in Philadelphia, but lost its charter in 1811. The Second Bank was chartered in 1816, and that charter expired in 1836...there has been no central bank since then. The Federal Reserve System, established in 1913, carries out the central bank functions.

Posted by Jennifer at 01:49 PM

February 24, 2004

Lemon: Bone-Dissolver

Know why you get lemon with your fish?

It's not flavoring.

Back in the Middle Ages, they started serving lemon with fish because you might accidentally swallow a fish bone. The lemon was meant to be ingested in such an instance in order to dissolve the bone.

I'd do a science project to test the merit of this, but I'm fresh out of lemon. And bones. Too bad I don't know any scientists.

Posted by Jennifer at 02:39 PM | Comments (2)

February 23, 2004

February 23

A lot of things happen on this date. Here are a few:

In 1997, Scotland researchers announced the successful cloning of a sheep named Dolly. By March 4, President Bill Clinton imposed a ban on federal funds for human cloning.

In 1991, the ground offensive of Desert Storm began.

In 1942, the Japanese attacked the U.S. mainland. (I originally posted about this here.)

In 1868, W.E.B. DuBois was born.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:06 AM | Comments (1)

February 20, 2004

February 20

In 1962, John Herschel Glenn, Jr. became the first American to orbit Earth. He made 3 orbits in his Friendship 7 capsule.

In 1986, the MIR ("peace") space station was launched without crew from Kazakhstan.

Posted by Jennifer at 08:13 AM | Comments (0)

February 19, 2004

February 19

In 1942, President Franklin Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066. As a result, some 110,000 Japanese-Americans in coastal Pacific areas were placed in concentration camps. Two-thirds of these people were U.S. citizens. Approximately $400 million in property was lost by them as they were sent to camps in Arizona, Arkansas, inland California, Colorado, Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming. They were released almost three years later on January 2, 1945.

Posted by Jennifer at 08:25 AM | Comments (1)

February 18, 2004

February 18

In 1930, Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto from the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona.

Posted by Jennifer at 06:07 AM | Comments (0)

February 17, 2004

February 17

The most important thing to happen (to Chicagoans) on this date in history was the birth of Michael Jordan. He is 41.

In 1909, Geronimo died at Fort Sill, OK at the age of about 80.

Posted by Jennifer at 08:02 AM | Comments (0)

January 28, 2004

January 28

In 1986, at 11:39 a.m. EST, the space shuttle Challenger exploded. Crewmembers Francis R. Scobee, Michael J. Smith, Judith A. Resnick, Ellison S. Onizuka, Ronald E. McNair, and Gregory B. Jarvis were killed along with "Teacher in Space" Christa McAuliffe.

Space flight had become almost routine in the media and with the public, but McAuliffe made the Challenger mission newsworthy. Millions of American schoolchildren saw the explosion live.

I remember the event very well. I was in the school library, taking a sixth grade science test that I had missed. The librarians hooked up a television so they could see the liftoff, and when it exploded one of them said "Oh my God!" loud enough that I looked up to see what the commotion was about.

When I returned to my classroom with the test, I told my science teacher (Mrs. Dube) what had happened. She didn't really want to believe me, but she was obviously distressed. I went to lunch, and the administration had set up televisions throughout the cafeteria for everyone to see. Counselors made announcements and speeches, trying to help us make sense of what happened.

It was an early dismissal day anyway, so we all went home early. I sat on the couch and cried as the news replayed the event over and over.

I saw the "I Touch the Future" book sometime after that and bought it. I still have that book. Every now and then I still get teary over the Challenger, too.

Almost a year ago, we lost another shuttle and its crew. It's hard to believe a year has passed since the Columbia disaster. I was watching Saturday morning cartoons when the news broke in that the shuttle was overdue to land. Anyone who knows anything about NASA knew that could not be good. I was irritated that the news anchors tried to come up with possible explanations that did not include a loss of the shuttle.

Space flight is anything but routine, and it's sad that it takes disasters like these to make people stop taking it for granted.

Posted by Jennifer at 06:01 AM | Comments (1)

January 27, 2004

January 27

In 1967, Gus Grissom, Edward White, and Roger Chaffee died when fire broke out during their Apollo I launch simulation.

Lewis Carroll, Mozart, and Mikhail Baryshnikov were born on this date.

It is the anniversary of the Vietnam Peace agreement, signed in 1973, which ended U.S. combat involvement in the war. The war itself would not end until 1975.

And of course, today is Thomas Crapper Day. Mr. Crapper perfected the flush toilet and founded Thomas Crapper & Co in London in 1861.

Posted by Jennifer at 08:00 AM | Comments (0)

January 26, 2004

January 26

Happy Australia Day to Pixy Misa and his fellow countrymen and women.

Happy birthday anniversary to General Douglas MacArthur.

Happy birthdays to Michigan, Ellen DeGeneres, Paul Newman, and Wayne Gretzky.

Posted by Jennifer at 07:53 AM | Comments (1)

January 12, 2004

*My Case For Twain

I’ve been asked why I quoted Churchill in this post but not Twain. Notwithstanding certain similarities, Churchill and Twain, in my very humble opinion, were two of the most important figures of the 20th century, operating on very different but distinct planes.

Churchill, the figure we visualize steadfast against a genocidal Hitler across the English Channel, but Twain, seldom recognized as a player, if not one of the key figures, in the battle to abolish an equally evil human endeavor otherwise known as slavery.

Twain’s Adventures Of Huckelberry Finn, was the literary extension of Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation and, when all was said and done, an equally damning statement on slavery. Taking nothing away from Lincoln and the immeasurable sacrifices of the American Civil War, it took great courage and an inhuman literary talent to pull off what Twain accomplished.

So, at last, my favorite Twain quotation:
Loyalty to petrified opinion never broke a chain or freed a human soul.

‘nuff said, me thinks.

Posted by at 10:21 PM | Comments (8)

December 28, 2003

*Happy Birthday, Iowa

On this day in 1846, Iowa became the 29th state.

Posted by Jennifer at 08:49 AM

December 17, 2003

December 17

This is a very important date in history. Why?

Because on this date, Americans were propelled into the future: The Simpsons made their television debut.

Oh, and some guys flew a plane or something.

Posted by Jennifer at 08:20 AM | Comments (1)

December 14, 2003

Saddam Captured

I woke up kinda late this morning, and turned on the computer...and suddenly it was a great day!

If it was Osama, I'd be doing the giddy happy dance of celebration. As it is, I'll settle for giddy happy blogging.

***Update: Get the t-shirt!

Posted by Jennifer at 10:52 AM | Comments (1)

December 07, 2003

Pearl Harbor Anniversary

Today is the anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor...and military bases at Guam, Wake Island, and the Philippines. The attack on Pearl Harbor became a rallying cry for the American people throughout World War II.

Since this is the 62nd anniversary and not some nice, round number, the media doesn't seem to be paying much attention to the anniversary.

MSNBC has a short story, including a bit about an Iowan who served on the USS Nevada.

FoxNews has the nearly identical story on their site. Let me check. Yep, it's an AP feed.

CNN has a story on dive expeditions to the USS Arizona, site of 1,177 fatalities.

If you're reading this, please take a moment to remember. Then take a few more to see Sgt Hook.

Posted by Jennifer at 03:37 PM | Comments (0)

November 25, 2003

What Do You Know?

About Chicago and its history...

Chicago was originally founded by a Haitian, Jean Baptiste Pointe Du Sable. He was a black man, and not officially recognized as the city's founder until 1968.

Around 1772 or 1773, Du Sable left Peoria and explored north to an area called Eschikagou by the Indians. DuSable settled in the area and built the first permanent home on the north bank of the Chicago River. He established a trading post and became quite wealthy.

Du Sable's granddaughter was born in 1796--the first child born in Chicago.

The Great Chicago Fire started in a cow barn, but there is no evidence a cow started it. A newspaper reporter, Michael Ahern, admitted he made it up to make a better story.

The Chicago Stockyards were closed and demolished in 1971. Only the Union Stock Yards' gate still stands as a landmark.

The Chicago Tribune was the first paper to run regular movie reviews.

Dr. Scholl started out as a shoemaker in Chicago, eventually turning to podiatry.

Chicago is not the windiest city...it ranks only 16th in the United States. Great Falls, Montana is actually the windiest city in the country.

The 10-story Home Insurance Company Building in Chicago was the first skyscraper. It was finished in 1885 and demolished in 1931. It was the first tall building to have a frame of iron and steel instead of masonry.

The Sears Tower is 1454 feet and 110 stories tall.

O'Hare Airport is named for Edward Henry O'Hare, who shot down five Japanese planes on November 27, 1943. He died in the battle, but was credited with saving the U.S. aircraft carrier Lexington. ***Update: a correction to the dates of O'Hare's battles is here.

Mickey Finn was a turn-of-the-century Chicago bartender who served a spiked drink to patrons he wanted to rob.

Al Capone is one of Chicago's most notorious sons, but he grew up in Brooklyn.

"Chicago overcoat" was a 1920s mafia term for coffin.

"Chicago amnesia" was a 1920s mafia term regarding witnesses who suddenly forgot what they had seen.

The first baseball All-Star game was played at Comiskey Park on July 6, 1933. The AL won, 4-2.

The original Big Ten Conference included the University of Chicago. They dropped out in 1946 when they ended their football program.

Posted by Jennifer at 08:00 PM | Comments (2)

November 22, 2003

November 22

Somebody asked why I hadn't posted anything for the anniversary of the Kennedy assassination.

The main reason is that I think the mainstream media has this one covered.

The second reason is...I don't know. No one asked why I didn't have a McKinley post up September 14. Or a Lincoln post up April 15. Okay, I didn't have a blog on April 15.

Kennedy was killed eleven years before I was born. No president has died in office during my lifetime. No president has prematurely left office during my lifetime for any reason whatsoever.

I could attempt some meaningful post about President Kennedy, but I think I'll pass. I will say I have been to his grave in Arlington. I have been to Herbert Hoover's grave as well. I was in solemn awe at both. Any man (and let's hope woman someday) with the courage to take on the presidency has my complete respect for that. There has been a president or two in my lifetime that I disagree with and even dislike, but anyone willing to assume such awesome responsibility is indeed a special person, regardless of their personal conduct--or political slant. I don't think anyone could take on such a job without understanding the importance of it.

So there you have it...my Kennedy non-post.

Here is a "real" Kennedy post for you.

Posted by Jennifer at 06:48 PM | Comments (0)

November 20, 2003

Nuremberg Anniversary

In 1945, the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial began against 24 former Nazi officials.

One defendant committed suicide, one was declared unfit mentally or physically to stand trial, twelve were sentenced to death by hanging, three were sentenced to life in prison, four were given lesser prison terms, and three were acquitted.

The trial lasted almost a year, ending October 1, 1946.

Posted by Jennifer at 02:04 PM | Comments (0)

November 11, 2003

Veteran's Day

A huge and heartfelt thank you to the men and women who have risked their lives to protect ours...and those who continue to do so. Please take a moment out of your day to remember the ones who gave their lives for your freedom.

Paul has a good post up about today. I'm a fan of the last line in particular.

Today is a nice day to visit Front Line Voices to read letters from our servicemen and women.

I didn't have time to write anything particularly significant for today, for which I apologize...please visit the links above instead.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:32 AM | Comments (1)

November 09, 2003

November 9

In 1938, more than 30,000 Jews were arrested and 91 killed in Germany as a mob carried out a pogrom against them. Synagogues were burned down or demolished, prayer books and Torah scrolls fed bonfires in Jewish neighborhoods, and thousands of Jewish shops and homes were destroyed. The night was named Kristallnacht (Crystal Night) for all the smashed glass.

In 1989, the Berlin Wall was opened after 28 years of separating East and West Germany.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:56 AM | Comments (0)

November 04, 2003

Presidential Facts From Encarta

This article is titled "12 Things You Didn't Know About U.S. Presidents" which of course I viewed as a challenge.

I knew 1 and 2, did not know 3, knew 4, dispute 5, did not know 6, knew 7 and 8 and 9, am curious about 10...surely there aren't that many bad swimmers in tiny Dixon?, and knew 11 and 12.

Just in case you're keeping score.

Posted by Jennifer at 11:59 PM | Comments (5)

October 30, 2003

Terrible Shocking Mutilated Death

Today marks the 65th anniversary of the War of the Worlds radio broadcast. Which reminds me of something that happened years before that.

In the 1870s, reportedly to satisfy his own ego, one newspaper man conceived of a hoax that kept the streets of New York City empty.

James Gordon Bennett, the publisher of the New York Herald, bragged to his friends that he could make the public do anything he wanted. He said he'd prove it by keeping New Yorkers at home the next day.

Sure enough, the next day found the streets of New York deserted...the morning paper carried headlines about escaped animals from the zoo. "Terrible Scenes of Mutilation" and a "Shocking Carnival of Death" were promised to greet the citizens who wandered outside.

After several hours, people realized it was a hoax and slowly the city came back to life.

(The source for the above is Reader's Digest, but I found this, which explains it a bit differently. Draw your own conclusions.)

Posted by Jennifer at 07:55 AM | Comments (3)

October 29, 2003

Not sure if Al Gore was there...

On October 29, 1969, the first connection was made on what would become the internet. Data flowed between UCLA and Stanford Research Institute and marked the beginning of ARPANET, which was decommissioned in 1990.

By the end of 1969, UCLA, the Stanford Reserach Institute, UC-Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah were connected. Applications like e-mail and file transfer utilities were developed. By 1973, 75% of ARPANET traffic was e-mail.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:00 PM | Comments (3)

October 27, 2003

October 27

Today is the anniversary of the Federalist Papers...the first of the 85 essays promoting adoption of the Constitution appeared on this day in 1787 in New York newspapers.

It's also Teddy Roosevelt's birthday, who was born in 1858.

Today is the 99th anniversary of the New York subway system...in 1904 a line running from City Hall to West 145th Street opened up.

And most importantly...John Cleese was born in 1939.

Posted by Jennifer at 07:31 PM | Comments (2)

October 17, 2003

Happier Days

It was a rough week for Cubs fans...but since it is Friday, I think the last thought should be on happier times.

1906...The Cubs made it to their first World Series. Granted, it was only the third World Series. And they lost. To the Chicago White Sox. Let's move on.

1907...The Cubs win the World Series, beating the Detroit Tigers 4 games to 0. That's ZERO. Ha ha ha!

1908...The Cubs win yet another World Series. The first team to repeat! They do it against the Detroit Tigers, 4 games to 1.

And that concludes today's baseball history lesson. Time to drink.

Posted by Jennifer at 03:18 PM | Comments (3)

October 14, 2003

56 Years Ago Today...

U.S. Air Force pilot Chuck Yeager broke the sound barrier. He was flying a Bell X-1 in California.

Bonus points if you know what character General Yeager played in the movie The Right Stuff.

Posted by Jennifer at 05:45 AM | Comments (3)

October 12, 2003

Any reason to celebrate

According to the United Nations, today marks the 4-year anniversary of the world's population reaching the 6 billion mark.

Just thought you'd like to know.

Oh, and...Go Cubs!

Posted by Jennifer at 03:16 PM | Comments (4)

October 06, 2003

*Parallels

If nothing else, it's certainly interesting to see the accusations of anti-Semitism and womanizing being flung at Arnold Schwarzenegger. After all, anti-Semitism and womanizing are nothing new to the Kennedy family. Patriarch Joe Kennedy did pretty well in both departments.

While serving as America's ambassador to England, Joe opined the Jews had "brought on themselves" everything Hitler did. He said that Hitler had done "great things" for Germany and that the Germans were thriving.

Morton Downey Jr, whose father was a close friend of Joe's, said, "I think if Joe had his way, Hitler would have succeeded in his annihilation of the Jews....He always found great favor in Hitler. He would have loved to see him succeed."

When Joe's son, Joe Jr, was traveling through Germany, he wrote a letter home that complemented his father's own views. In it, he remarked on Hitler's "sterilization law which I think is a good thing. I don't know how the (Catholic) Church feels about it but it will do away with many of the disgusting specimens of men who inhabit this earth."

Joe was aggressively anti-Semitic. He even lobbied his son John to incorporate attacks on Jews into his political platform.

As for womanizing, I'll just say two words: Gloria Swanson.

Posted by Jennifer at 12:06 AM

October 03, 2003

What Do You Know?

About military bugle calls...

Bugle calls were meant to signal soldiers and could be heard over the noise of battle and across long distances. There were no words to be sung with the calls.

You can go to this site and hear some bugle calls.

Taps, which has no official words, may have originated as part of the early French call, the Tattoo. The Tattoo was used to summon soldiers from the taverns to return to base. The military police would sound the call, which signaled tavern keepers to shut off the taps.

Here are different "lyrics" to Taps:

Day is done,
gone the sun,
From the hills,
from the lake,
From the skies.
All is well,
safely rest,
God is nigh.

Go to sleep,
peaceful sleep,
May the soldier
or sailor,
God keep.
On the land
or the deep,
Safe in sleep.

Love, good night,
Must thou go,
When the day,
And the night
Need thee so?
All is well.
Speedeth all
To their rest.

Fades the light;
And afar
Goeth day,
And the stars
Shineth bright,
Fare thee well;
Day has gone,
Night is on.

Thanks and praise,
For our days,
'Neath the sun,
Neath the stars,
'Neath the sky,
As we go,
This we know,
God is nigh.

The origin of Taps is still debatable, but the most accepted story is that Daniel Adams Butterfield created the call during the Civil War. At the time, the Union troops were using the French Lights Out call, which Butterfield thought was too formal. He made some notes longer and some shorter, but otherwise made no changes.

Taps was first played at a military funeral when the CO decided the traditional gun salute would provoke the nearby enemy camp.

England's King George III had a call written to wake the troops. It was named Reveille, from the French "to wake."

French Reveille is La Diana, after the Roman legions' use of Diana's Hymn in the morning.

The most common calls used today include First Call, which you may also hear at the start of horse races.

Here is another site you can check for information on bugle calls.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:43 AM | Comments (5)

Cellar Dweller

Courtesy "Great American Scandals" by Michael Farquhar.

"Give me liberty or give me death," Patrick Henry famously demanded on the eve of the American Revolution. His wife, Sarah, might have said the same thing, since she was confined in the basement of the couple's Virginia estate for almost four years. Not that the accommodations were all that bad...partially aboveground, letting in plenty of light and fresh air...Yet it wasn't quite the Ritz, especially when Sarah found herself in a straitjacket. What had driven the poor woman to such an unfortunate state?

It seems her children were part of the problem. She had five of them, starting when she was seventeen, but after the birth of the sixth in 1771, Sarah lost it. She exhibited what Patrick Henry biographer Robert Meade calls "a strange antipathy" toward her children. It might be called postpartum psychosis today. Sarah's "antipathy" became so dangerous that she had to be kept away from the kids. But Patrick Henry was a loyal husband and knew how horrific insane asylums of the day could be. So, the family lived upstairs while Sarah ranted and raved below. It was in this sad state that she died in 1775 at age thirty-seven.


Posted by Jennifer at 05:46 AM | Comments (5)

October 01, 2003

Names Revisited

In 1875, future Texas governor Jim Hogg and his wife named their newborn daughter Ima.

Posted by Jennifer at 04:08 PM | Comments (6)

September 24, 2003

1974 Trivia: Gay Rights

In August, 1974 AT&T established a homosexual anti-discrimination policy. They became the first major American corporation to have equal opportunity policies for lesbians and gay men.

Posted by Jennifer at 12:36 AM

September 17, 2003

Precedent

The first session of the U.S. Senate took place from April 23 to May 14, 1789. Almost the entire meeting was preoccupied with what to call the President.

Vice-president John Adams insisted that the title should include specific words of dignity so as to keep the president of the nation from being mistaken as president of a "fire company or perhaps a cricket club." Adams wished to call the president "His Highness the President of the United States and Protector of the Rights of the Same."

The Senate finally agreed on the title "His Highness," borrowed from the English Parliament's term of address for the king. The House of Representatives opted for "The President of the United States." This simpler title was soon supported by everyone.

Senators also wanted to have themselves called "The Honorable" but the House balked at this as well. However, both the House and Senate supposedly agreed to secretly call the overweight vice-president "His Rotundity."

Posted by Jennifer at 03:35 AM

1974 Trivia: Feeling Gassy

Gas prices skyrocketed in 1974. There were high prices and low supplies, and yet the oil companies averaged 90% profit increases during the first half of the year. Hmm.

This was also the year that saw the federal speed limit set at 55 mph. It was meant to conserve gas as well as improve highway safety.

Posted by Jennifer at 02:38 AM

September 16, 2003

Vietnam

Here is a good link for anyone who wants to learn about Vietnam. It's a chronological history with links to more in-depth information.

It covers 1930 through the normalization of relations between Vietnam and America.

Posted by Jennifer at 12:55 AM | Comments (1)

September 12, 2003

WTC Reminder

I had wanted to post several more picture that Pete was kind enough to give me access to...but as happens sometimes, responsibilities got in the way. I will post more pics over the weekend, but probably not tonight. Tonight sounds like a good drinking night.

But I did want to post this one...as a reminder.

Ladder 3

I'll have one for them, and I'll have one for you. Salut.

Posted by Jennifer at 04:22 PM | Comments (4)

September 11, 2003

Final Post Today

This will be my last post for the day. I may post more pictures tomorrow. If you have some you would like me to include, please e-mail them to jenlars-at-hotmail-dot-com.

In the meantime, here is a message an NYPD Sergeant sent his guys this morning:

Can you believe it's been 2 years since that terrible day? I, for one, still can't believe it actually happened sometimes. I think about it often and it still hurts...still makes me angry as hell. On this anniversary I pray for the victims, the rescuers who died saving others, the victims'/rescuers' families & friends, the survivors who have suffered and still do-and sad to say, probably always will. And last but not least those that worked tirelessly down there for months on end sacrificing their health, their time with their loved ones and who, though seemingly impossible to believe at that time, maintained order and gave the city back its sense of security in such insecure times. It was truly an amazing accomplishment when you take time out to think of it. I salute each and every one of these men & women mentioned here. I hope you all do the same.

Be good to your families, friends and those we work side by side with--for they are truly all we have. God Bless Always...

Never Forget.

Posted by Jennifer at 10:26 PM | Comments (2)

WTC Aftermath

More pics, courtesy of Pete.

This first one was taken by me from inside our building about a month after the attack. We had gone in to recover some equipment. It is looking down on where Building 7 once stood. There was nothing left to show that a 47 story building had once stood there, save for the concrete foundation. The Verizon building is on the right. Straight ahead is the remains of one of the smaller buildings, WTC #6 I think, and the pile of rubble.

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Posted by Jennifer at 09:45 PM

More WTC Pictures

Pete has more pictures to share.

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Posted by Jennifer at 09:38 PM | Comments (1)

The Pentagon 9/11

Via Victor's friend.

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Posted by Jennifer at 03:22 PM | Comments (3)

WTC Pictures

Thank you, Pete, for sharing these pictures.

My building is the white one with the roof that looks like stairs. These were taken by someone who lived several blocks North of WTC.

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Here is the south side of my building.

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This is the Verizon building which took hits from the North Tower and Building #7 which collapsed later that afternoon.

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Here is one seconds after the collapse of the second tower.

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Posted by Jennifer at 07:48 AM | Comments (6)

09.11.01

I have been thinking about this post for quite awhile. I thought about how I could express my feelings about the terrorist attacks. I thought about how that day affected me and my own plans for the future. I wasn't in New York or Washington that day. I was at home. I was packing. I was moving to the New York area in a couple of weeks.

I had quit my job, saved my pennies, had an apartment lined up, and was moving east. So I had a decision to make. I was in a plane two weeks after the attacks, I saw Ground Zero on October 1, and I felt the same horror everyone in the country felt. The job I was going to was no longer there, and the job market was very tight. I was in New York for a few months, and I loved it. I hope to go back someday.

But the thing is...it's not about me today. There were a lot of people more affected by the attacks than I. Thousands of people woke up, got their kids off to school, and went to work on a gorgeous morning...then never came home. So I can have a pity-party over how the attacks affected me, but it's not about me.

It's about them...

WORLD TRADE CENTER

Gordon McCannel Aamoth, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Maria Rose Abad, 49, Syosset, N.Y.*

Edelmiro (Ed) Abad, 54, New York, N.Y.*

Andrew Anthony Abate, 37, Melville, N.Y.*

Vincent Abate, 40, New York, N.Y.*

Laurence Christopher Abel, 37*

William F. Abrahamson, 58, Cortland Manor, N.Y.*

Richard Anthony Aceto, 42, Wantagh, N.Y.*

Erica Van Acker, 62, New York, N.Y.*

Heinrich B. Ackermann, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Paul Andrew Acquaviva, 29, Glen Rock, N.J.*

Donald L. Adams, 28, Chatham, N.J.*

Shannon Lewis Adams, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Stephen Adams, 51, New York, N.Y.*

Patrick Adams, 60, New York, N.Y.*

Ignatius Adanga, 62, New York, N.Y.*

Christy A. Addamo, 28, New Hyde Park, N.Y.*

Terence E. Adderley, 22, Bloomfield Hills, Mich.*

Sophia B. Addo, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Lee Adler, 48, Springfield, N.J.*

Daniel Thomas Afflitto, 32, Manalapan, N.J.*

Emmanuel Afuakwah, 37, New York, N.Y.

Alok Agarwal, 36, Jersey City, N.J.*

Mukul Agarwala, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Joseph Agnello, 35, New York, N.Y.*

David Scott Agnes, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Joao A. Aguiar Jr., 30, Red Bank, N.J.*

Lt. Brian G. Ahearn, 43, Huntington, N.Y.*

Jeremiah J. Ahern, 74, Cliffside Park, N.J.*

Joanne Ahladiotis, 27, New York, N.Y.*

Shabbir Ahmed, 47, New York, N.Y.*

Terrance Andre Aiken, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Godwin Ajala, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Gertrude M. Alagero, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Andrew Alameno, 37, Westfield, N.J.*

Margaret Ann (Peggy) Jezycki Alario, 41, New York, N.Y.*

Gary Albero, 39, Emerson, N.J.*

Jon L. Albert, 46, Upper Nyack, N.Y.*

Peter Craig Alderman, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Jacquelyn Delaine Aldridge, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Grace Alegre-Cua, 40, Glen Rock, N.J.*

David D. Alger, 57, New York, N.Y.*

Ernest Alikakos, 43, New York, N.Y.*

Edward L. Allegretto, 51, Colonia, N.J.*

Eric Allen, 44, New York, N.Y.*

Joseph Ryan Allen, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Richard Lanard Allen, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Richard Dennis Allen, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Christopher Edward Allingham, 36, River Edge, N.J.*

Janet M. Alonso, 41, Stony Point, N.Y.*

Anthony Alvarado, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Antonio Javier Alvarez, 23, New York, N.Y.*

Telmo Alvear, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Cesar A. Alviar, 60, Bloomfield, N.J.*

Tariq Amanullah, 40, Metuchen, N.J.*

Angelo Amaranto, 60, New York, N.Y.*

James Amato, 43, Ronkonkoma, N.Y.*

Joseph Amatuccio, 41, New York, N.Y.*

Christopher Charles Amoroso, 29, New York, N.Y.*

Kazuhiro Anai, 42, Scarsdale, N.Y.

Calixto Anaya, 35, Suffern, N.Y.*

Jorge Octavio Santos Anaya, 25, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico

Joseph Peter Anchundia, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Kermit Charles Anderson, 57, Green Brook, N.J.*

Yvette Anderson, 53, New York, N.Y.*

John Andreacchio, 52, New York, N.Y.*

Michael Rourke Andrews, 34, Belle Harbor, N.Y.*

Jean A. Andrucki, 42, Hoboken, N.J.*

Siew-Nya Ang, 37, East Brunswick, N.J.*

Joseph Angelini, 38, Lindenhurst, N.Y.*

Joseph Angelini, 63, Lindenhurst, N.Y.*

Laura Angilletta, 23, New York, N.Y.

Doreen J. Angrisani, 44, New York, N.Y.*

Lorraine D. Antigua, 32, Middletown, N.J.*

Peter Paul Apollo, 26, Hoboken, N.J.*

Faustino Apostol, 55, New York, N.Y.*

Frank Thomas Aquilino, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Patrick Michael Aranyos, 26, New York, N.Y.*

David Gregory Arce, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Michael G. Arczynski, 45, Little Silver, N.J.*

Louis Arena, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Adam Arias, 37, Staten Island, N.Y.*

Michael J. Armstrong, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Jack Charles Aron, 52, Bergenfield, N.J.*

Joshua Aron, 29, New York, N.Y.*

Richard Avery Aronow, 48, Mahwah, N.J.*

Japhet J. Aryee, 49, Spring Valley, N.Y.

Carl Asaro, 39, Middletown, N.Y.*

Michael A. Asciak, 47, Ridgefield, N.J.*

Michael Edward Asher, 53, Monroe, N.Y.*

Janice Ashley, 25, Rockville Centre, N.Y.*

Thomas J. Ashton, 21, New York, N.Y.*

Manuel O. Asitimbay, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Lt. Gregg Arthur Atlas, 45, Howells, N.Y.*

Gerald Atwood, 38, New York, N.Y.*

James Audiffred, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Kenneth W. Van Auken, 47, East Brunswick, N.J.*

Louis F. Aversano, Jr, 58, Manalapan, N.J.*

Ezra Aviles, 41, Commack, N.Y.*

Ayodeji Awe, 42, New York, N.Y

Samuel (Sandy) Ayala, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Arlene T. Babakitis, 47, Secaucus, N.J.*

Eustace (Rudy) Bacchus, 48, Metuchen, N.J.*

John James Badagliacca, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Jane Ellen Baeszler, 43, New York, N.Y.*

Robert J. Baierwalter, 44, Albertson, N.Y.*

Andrew J. Bailey, 29, New York, N.Y.*

Brett T. Bailey, 28, Bricktown, N.J.*

Tatyana Bakalinskaya, 43, New York, N.Y.*

Michael S. Baksh, 36, Englewood, N.J.*

Sharon Balkcom, 43, White Plains, N.Y.*

Michael Andrew Bane, 33, Yardley, Pa.*

Kathy Bantis, 44, Chicago, Ill.*

Gerard Jean Baptiste, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Walter Baran, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Gerard A. Barbara, 53, New York, N.Y.*

Paul V. Barbaro, 35, Holmdel, N.J.*

James W. Barbella, 53, Oceanside, N.Y.*

Ivan Kyrillos Fairbanks Barbosa, 30, Jersey City, N.J.*

Victor Daniel Barbosa, 23, New York, N.Y.*

Colleen Ann Barkow, 26, East Windsor, N.J.*

David Michael Barkway, 34, Toronto, Ontario, Canada*

Matthew Barnes, 37, Monroe, N.Y.*

Sheila Patricia Barnes, 55, Bay Shore, N.Y.*

Evan J. Baron, 38, Bridgewater, N.J.*

Renee Barrett-Arjune, 41, Irvington, N.J.

Arthur T. Barry, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Diane G. Barry, 60, New York, N.Y.*

Maurice Vincent Barry, 49, Rutherford, N.J.*

Scott D. Bart, 28, Malverne, N.Y.*

Carlton W. Bartels, 44, New York, N.Y.*

Guy Barzvi, 29, New York, N.Y.*

Inna Basina, 43, New York, N.Y.*

Alysia Basmajian, 23, Bayonne, N.J.*

Kenneth William Basnicki, 48, Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada*

Lt. Steven J. Bates, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Paul James Battaglia, 22, New York, N.Y.*

W. David Bauer, 45, Rumson, N.J.

Ivhan Luis Carpio Bautista, 24, New York, N.Y.*

Marlyn C. Bautista, 46, Iselin, N.J.*

Jasper Baxter, 45, Philadelphia, Pa.*

Michele (Du Berry) Beale, 37, Essex, Britain*

Paul F. Beatini, 40, Park Ridge, N.J.*

Jane S. Beatty, 53, Belford, N.J.*

Larry I. Beck, 38, Baldwin, N.Y.*

Manette Marie Beckles, 43, Rahway, N.J.*

Carl John Bedigian, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Michael Beekman, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Maria Behr, 41, Milford, N.J.

Yelena Belilovsky, 38, Mamaroneck, N.Y.*

Nina Patrice Bell, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Andrea Della Bella, 59, Jersey City, N.J.*

Debbie S. Bellows, 30, East Windsor, N.J.*

Stephen Elliot Belson, 51, New York, N.Y.*

Paul Michael Benedetti, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Denise Lenore Benedetto, 40, New York, N.Y.*

Bryan Craig Bennett, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Oliver Duncan Bennett, 29, London, England*

Eric L. Bennett, 29, New York, N.Y.*

Margaret L. Benson, 52, Rockaway, N.J.*

Dominick J. Berardi, 25, New York, N.Y.

James Patrick Berger, 44, Lower Makefield, Pa.*

Steven Howard Berger, 45, Manalapan, N.J.*

John P. Bergin, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Alvin Bergsohn, 48, Baldwin Harbor, N.Y.*

Daniel D. Bergstein, 38, Teaneck, N.J.*

Michael J. Berkeley, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Donna Bernaerts-Kearns, 44, Hoboken, N.J.*

David W. Bernard, 57, Chelmsford, Mass.*

William Bernstein, 44, New York, N.Y.*

David M. Berray, 39, New York, N.Y.*

David S. Berry, 43, New York, N.Y.*

Joseph J. Berry, 55, Saddle River, N.J.*

William Reed Bethke, 36, Hamilton, N.J.*

Timothy D. Betterly, 42, Little Silver, N.J.*

Edward F. Beyea, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Paul Michael Beyer, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Anil T. Bharvaney, 41, East Windsor, N.J.*

Bella Bhukhan, 24, Union, N.J.*

Shimmy D. Biegeleisen, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Peter Alexander Bielfeld, 44, New York, N.Y.*

William Biggart, 54, New York, N.Y.*

Brian Bilcher, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Carl Vincent Bini, 44, New York, N.Y.*

Gary Bird, 51, Tempe, Ariz.*

Joshua David Birnbaum, 24, New York, N.Y.*

George Bishop, 52, Granite Springs, N.Y.*

Jeffrey D. Bittner, 27, New York, N.Y.*

Balewa Albert Blackman, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Christopher Joseph Blackwell, 42, Patterson, N.Y.*

Susan L. Blair, 35, East Brunswick, N.J.*

Harry Blanding, 38, Blakeslee, Pa.*

Janice L. Blaney, 55, Williston Park, N.Y.*

Craig Michael Blass, 27, Greenlawn, N.Y.*

Rita Blau, 52, New York, N.Y.*

Richard M. Blood, 38, Ridgewood, N.J.*

Michael A. Boccardi, 30, Bronxville, N.Y.

John Paul Bocchi, 38, New Vernon, N.J.*

Michael L. Bocchino, 45, New York, N.Y.*

Susan Mary Bochino, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Bruce Douglas (Chappy) Boehm, 49, West Hempstead, N.Y.*

Mary Katherine Boffa, 45, New York, N.Y.*

Nicholas A. Bogdan, 34, Browns Mills, N.J.*

Darren C. Bohan, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Lawrence Francis Boisseau, 36, Freehold, N.J.*

Vincent M. Boland, 25, Ringwood, N.J.*

Alan Bondarenko, 53, Flemington, N.J.*

Andre Bonheur, 40, New York, N.Y.*

Colin Arthur Bonnett, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Frank Bonomo, 42, Port Jefferson, N.Y.*

Yvonne L. Bonomo, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Sean Booker, 35, Irvington, N.J.*

Sherry Ann Bordeaux, 38, Jersey City, N.J.*

Krystine C. Bordenabe, 33, Old Bridge, N.J.*

Martin Boryczewski, 29, Parsippany, N.J.*

Richard E. Bosco, 34, Suffern, N.Y.*

John Howard Boulton, 29, New York, N.Y.*

Francisco Bourdier, 41, New York, N.Y.*

Thomas H. Bowden, 36, Wyckoff, N.J.*

Kimberly S. Bowers, 31, Islip, N.Y.*

Veronique (Bonnie) Nicole Bowers, 28, New York, N.Y.*

Larry Bowman, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Shawn Edward Bowman, 28, New York, N.Y.*

Kevin L. Bowser, 45, Philadelphia, Pa.*

Gary R. Box, 37, North Bellmore, N.Y.*

Gennady Boyarsky, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Pamela Boyce, 43, New York, N.Y.*

Michael Boyle, 37, Westbury, N.Y.*

Alfred Braca, 54, Leonardo, N.J.*

Sandra Conaty Brace, 60, New York, N.Y.*

Kevin H. Bracken, 37, New York, N.Y.*

David Brian Brady, 41, Summit, N.J.*

Alexander Braginsky, 38, Stamford, Conn.*

Nicholas W. Brandemarti, 21, Mantua, N.J.*

Michelle Renee Bratton, 23, Yonkers, N.Y.*

Patrice Braut, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Lydia Estelle Bravo, 50, Dunellen, N.J.*

Ronald Michael Breitweiser, 39, Middletown Township, N.J.*

Edward A. Brennan, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Frank H. Brennan, 50, New York, N.Y.*

Michael Emmett Brennan, 27, New York, N.Y.*

Peter Brennan, 30, Ronkonkoma, N.Y.*

Thomas M. Brennan, 32, Scarsdale, N.Y.

Capt. Daniel Brethel, 43, Farmingdale, N.Y.*

Gary L. Bright, 36, Union City, N.J.*

Jonathan Eric Briley, 43, Mount Vernon, N.Y.*

Mark A. Brisman, 34, Armonk, N.Y.*

Paul Gary Bristow, 27, New York, N.Y.*

Victoria Alvarez Brito, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Mark Francis Broderick, 42, Old Bridge, N.J.*

Herman C. Broghammer, 58, North Merrick, N.Y.*

Keith Broomfield, 49, New York, N.Y.*

Janice J. Brown, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Lloyd Brown, 28, Bronxville, N.Y.*

Capt. Patrick J. Brown, 48, New York, N.Y.*

Bettina Browne, 49, Atlantic Beach, N.Y.*

Mark Bruce, 40, Summit, N.J.*

Richard Bruehert, 38, Westbury, N.Y.*

Andrew Brunn, 28*

Capt. Vincent Brunton, 43, New York, N.Y.*

Ronald Paul Bucca, 47, Tuckahoe, N.Y.*

Brandon J. Buchanan, 24, New York, N.Y.*

Greg Joseph Buck, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Dennis Buckley, 38, Chatham, N.J.*

Nancy Bueche, 43, Hicksville, N.Y.*

Patrick Joseph Buhse, 36, Lincroft, N.J.*

John E. Bulaga, 35, Paterson, N.J.*

Stephen Bunin, 45, New York, N.Y.

Thomas Daniel Burke, 38, Bedford Hills, N.Y.*

Capt. William F. Burke, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Matthew J. Burke, 28, New York, N.Y.*

Donald James Burns, 61, Nissequogue, N.Y.*

Kathleen A. Burns, 49, New York, N.Y.*

Keith James Burns, 39, East Rutherford, N.J.*

John Patrick Burnside, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Irina Buslo, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Milton Bustillo, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Thomas M. Butler, 37, Kings Park, N.Y.*

Patrick Byrne, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Timothy G. Byrne, 36, Manhattan, N.Y.*

Jesus Cabezas, 66, New York, N.Y.*

Lillian Caceres, 48, New York, N.Y.*

Brian Joseph Cachia, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Steven Cafiero, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Richard M. Caggiano, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Cecile M. Caguicla, 55, Boonton, N.J.*

Michael John Cahill, 37, East Williston, N.Y.*

Scott W. Cahill, 30, West Caldwell, N.J.*

Thomas J. Cahill, 36, Franklin Lakes, N.J.*

George Cain, 35, Massapequa, N.Y.*

Salvatore B. Calabro, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Joseph Calandrillo, 49, Hawley, Pa.*

Philip V. Calcagno, 57, New York, N.Y.

Edward Calderon, 44, Jersey City, N.J.*

Kenneth Marcus Caldwell, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Dominick E. Calia, 40, Manalapan, N.J.*

Felix (Bobby) Calixte, 38, New York, N.Y.

Capt. Frank Callahan, 51, New York, N.Y.*

Liam Callahan, 44, Rockaway, N.J.*

Luigi Calvi, 34, East Rutherford, N.J.*

Roko Camaj, 60, Manhasset, N.Y.*

Michael Cammarata, 22, Huguenot, N.Y.*

David Otey Campbell, 51, Basking Ridge, N.J.*

Geoffrey Thomas Campbell, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Sandra Patricia Campbell, 45, New York, N.Y.*

Jill Marie Campbell, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Robert Arthur Campbell, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Juan Ortega Campos, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Sean Canavan, 39, New York, N.Y.*

John A. Candela, 42, Glen Ridge, N.J.*

Vincent Cangelosi, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Stephen J. Cangialosi, 40, Middletown, N.J.*

Lisa B. Cannava, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Brian Cannizzaro, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Michael R. Canty, 30, Schenectady, N.Y.*

Louis A. Caporicci, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Jonathan N. Cappello, 23, Garden City, N.Y.*

James Christopher Cappers, 33, Wading River, N.Y.*

Richard M. Caproni, 34, Lynbrook, N.Y.*

Jose Cardona, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Dennis M Carey, 51, Wantagh, N.Y.*

Stephen Carey, 50, Chatsworth, CA

Edward Carlino, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Michael Scott Carlo, 34, New York, N.Y.*

David G. Carlone, 46, Randolph, N.J.*

Rosemarie C. Carlson, 40, New York, N.Y.*

Mark Stephen Carney, 41, Rahway, N.J.

Joyce Ann Carpeneto, 40, New York, N.Y.*

Alicia Acevedo Carranza, Teziutlan, Puebla, Mexico

Jeremy M. Carrington, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Michael T. Carroll, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Peter Carroll, 42, New York, N.Y.*

James J. Carson, 32, Massapequa, N.Y.*

James Marcel Cartier, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Vivian Casalduc, 45, New York, N.Y.*

John F. Casazza, 38, Colts Neck, N.J.*

Paul Cascio, 23, Manhasset, N.Y.*

Kathleen Hunt Casey, 43, Middletown, N.J.*

Margarito Casillas, 54, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico

Thomas Anthony Casoria, 29, New York, N.Y.*

William Otto Caspar, 57, Eatontown, N.J.*

Alejandro Castano, 35, Englewood, N.J.*

Arcelia Castillo, 49, Elizabeth, N.J.*

Leonard M. Castrianno, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Jose Ramon Castro, 37, New York, N.Y.

Richard G. Catarelli, 47, New York, N.Y.

Christopher Sean Caton, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Robert J. Caufield, 48, Valley Stream, N.Y.*

Mary Teresa Caulfield, 58, New York, N.Y.*

Judson Cavalier, 26, Huntington, N.Y.*

Michael Joseph Cawley, 32, Bellmore, N.Y.*

Jason D. Cayne, 32, Morganville, N.J.*

Juan Armando Ceballos, 47, New York, N.Y.*

Marcia G. Cecil-Carter, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Jason Cefalu, 30, West Hempstead, N.Y.*

Thomas J. Celic, 43, New York, N.Y.*

Ana M. Centeno, 38, Bayonne, N.J.*

Joni Cesta, 37, Bellmore, N.Y.*

Jeffrey M. Chairnoff, 35, West Windsor, N.J.*

Swarna Chalasani, 33, Jersey City, N.J.*

William Chalcoff, 41, Roslyn, N.Y.*

Eli Chalouh, 23, New York, N.Y.*

Charles Lawrence (Chip) Chan, 23, New York, N.Y.*

Mandy Chang, 40, New York, N.Y.*

Mark L. Charette, 38, Millburn, N.J.*

Gregorio Manuel Chavez, 48, New York, N.Y.

Jayceryll M. de Chavez, 24, Carteret, N.J.*

Pedro Francisco Checo, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Douglas MacMillan Cherry, 38, Maplewood, N.J.*

Stephen Patrick Cherry, 41, Stamford, Conn.*

Vernon Paul Cherry, 49, New York, N.Y.*

Nestor Chevalier, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Swede Joseph Chevalier, 26, Locust, N.J.*

Alexander H. Chiang, 51, New City, N.Y.*

Dorothy J. Chiarchiaro, 61, Glenwood, N.J.*

Luis Alfonso Chimbo, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Robert Chin, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Wing Wai (Eddie) Ching, 29, Union, N.J.*

Nicholas P. Chiofalo, 39, Selden, N.Y.*

John Chipura, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Peter A. Chirchirillo, 47, Langhorne, Pa.*

Catherine E. Chirls, 47, Princeton, N.J.*

Kyung (Kaccy) Cho, 30, Clifton, N.J.*

Abul K. Chowdhury, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Mohammed Salahuddin Chowdhury, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Kirsten L. Christophe, 39, Maplewood, N.J.*

Pamela Chu, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Steven Paul Chucknick, 44, Cliffwood Beach, N.J.*

Wai-ching Chung, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Christopher Ciafardini, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Alex F. Ciccone, 38, New Rochelle, N.Y.*

Frances Ann Cilente, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Elaine Cillo, 40, New York, N.Y.*

Edna Cintron, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Nestor Andre Cintron, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Lt. Robert Dominick Cirri, 39, Nutley, N.J.*

Juan Pablo Alvarez Cisneros, 23, Weehawken, N.J.*

Gregory Alan Clark, 40, Teaneck, N.J.*

Mannie Leroy Clark, 54, New York, N.Y.

Thomas R. Clark, 37, Summit, N.J.*

Eugene Clark, 47, New York, N.Y.*

Benjamin Keefe Clark, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Christopher Robert Clarke, 34, Philadelphia, Pa.*

Donna Clarke, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Michael Clarke, 27, Prince's Bay, N.Y.*

Suria R.E. Clarke, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Kevin Francis Cleary, 38, New York, N.Y.*

James D. Cleere, 55, Newton, Iowa*

Geoffrey W. Cloud, 36, Stamford, Conn.*

Susan M. Clyne, 42, Lindenhurst, N.Y.*

Steven Coakley, 36, Deer Park, N.Y.*

Jeffrey Coale, 31, Souderton, Pa.*

Patricia A. Cody, 46, Brigantine, N.J.*

Daniel Michael Coffey, 54, Newburgh, N.Y.*

Jason Matthew Coffey, 25, Newburgh, N.Y.*

Florence Cohen, 62, New York, N.Y.*

Kevin Sanford Cohen, 28, Edison, N.J.*

Anthony Joseph Coladonato, 47, New York, N.Y.*

Mark J. Colaio, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Stephen J. Colaio, 32, Montauk, N.Y.*

Christopher M. Colasanti, 33, Hoboken, N.J.*

Michel Paris Colbert, 39, West New York, N.J.*

Kevin Nathaniel Colbert, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Keith Eugene Coleman, 34, Warren, N.J.*

Scott Thomas Coleman, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Tarel Coleman, 32*

Liam Joseph Colhoun, 34, Flushing,, N.Y.*

Robert D. Colin, 49, West Babylon, N.Y.*

Robert J. Coll, 35, Glen Ridge, N.J.*

Jean Marie Collin, 42, New York, N.Y.*

John Michael Collins, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Michael L. Collins, 38, Montclair, N.J.*

Thomas J. Collins, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Joseph Collison, 50, New York, N.Y.*

Patricia Malia Colodner, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Linda M. Colon, 46, Perrineville, N.J.*

Soledi Colon, 39, New York, N.Y.

Ronald Comer, 56, Northport, N.Y.*

Jaime Concepcion, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Albert Conde, 62, Englishtown, N.J.*

Denease Conley, 44, New York, N.Y.*

Susan Clancy Conlon, 41, New York, N.Y.*

Margaret Mary Conner, 57, New York, N.Y.*

John E. Connolly, 46, Allenwood, N.J.*

Cynthia L. Connolly, 40, Metuchen, N.J.

James Lee Connor, 38, Summit, N.J.*

Jonathan (J.C.) Connors, 55, Old Brookville, N.Y.

Kevin P. Connors, 55, Greenwich, Conn.*

Kevin Francis Conroy, 47, New York, N.Y.*

Brenda E. Conway, 40, New York, N.Y.*

Dennis Michael Cook, 33, Colts Neck, N.J.*

Helen D. Cook, 24, New York, N.Y.*

John A. Cooper, 40, Bayonne, N.J.*

Joseph J. Coppo, 47, New Canaan, Conn.*

Gerard J. Coppola, 46, New Providence, N.J.*

Joseph Albert Corbett, 28, Islip, N.Y.*

Alejandro Cordero, 23, New York, N.Y.*

Robert Cordice, 28, New York, N.Y.*

Ruben D. Correa, 44, New York, N.Y.*

Danny A. Correa-Gutierrez, 25, Fairview, N.J.*

James Corrigan, 60, New York, N.Y.*

Carlos Cortes, 57, New York, N.Y.*

Kevin M. Cosgrove, 46, West Islip, N.Y.*

Dolores Marie Costa, 53, Middletown, N.J.*

Digna Alexandra Rivera Costanza, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Charles Gregory Costello, 46, Old Bridge, N.J.*

Michael S. Costello, 27, Hoboken, N.J.*

Conrod K.H. Cottoy, 51, New York, N.Y.*

Martin Coughlan, 54, New York, N.Y.*

Sgt. John Gerard Coughlin, 43, Pomona, N.Y.*

Timothy John Coughlin, 42, New York, N.Y.*

James E. Cove, 48, Rockville Centre, N.Y.*

Andre Cox, 29, New York, N.Y.

Frederick John Cox, 27, New York, N.Y.*

James Raymond Coyle, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Michelle Coyle-Eulau, 38, Garden City, N.Y.*

Anne M. Cramer, 47, New York, N.Y.*

Christopher Seton Cramer, 34, Manahawkin, N.J.*

Denise Crant, 46, Hackensack, N.J.*

Robert James Crawford, 62, New York, N.Y.*

James L. Crawford, 33, Madison, N.J.*

Joanne Mary Cregan, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Lucia Crifasi, 51, Glendale, N.Y.*

Lt. John Crisci, 48, Holbrook, N.Y.*

Daniel Hal Crisman, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Dennis A. Cross, 60, Islip Terrace, N.Y.*

Helen Crossin-Kittle, 34, Larchmont, N.Y.*

Kevin Raymond Crotty, 43, Summit, N.J.

Thomas G. Crotty, 42, Rockville Centre, N.Y.*

John Crowe, 57, Rutherford, N.J.*

Welles Remy Crowther, 24, Upper Nyack, N.Y.*

Robert L. Cruikshank, 64, New York, N.Y.

Francisco Cruz, 47, New York, N.Y.*

John Robert Cruz, 32, Jersey City, N.J.*

Kenneth John Cubas, 48, Woodstock, N.Y.*

Richard Joseph Cudina, 46, Glen Gardner, N.J.*

Neil James Cudmore, 38, Port Washington, N.Y.*

Thomas Patrick Cullen, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Joan McConnell Cullinan, 47, Scarsdale, N.Y.*

Joyce Cummings, 65*

Brian Thomas Cummins, 38, Manasquan, N.J.*

Nilton Albuquerque Fernao Cunha, 41

Michael Joseph Cunningham, 39, Princeton Junction, N.J.*

Robert Curatolo, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Laurence Curia, 41, Garden City, N.Y.*

Paul Dario Curioli, 53, Norwalk, Conn.*

Beverly Curry, 41, New York, N.Y.*

Sgt. Michael Curtin, 45, Medford, N.Y.*

Gavin Cushny, 47, Hoboken, N.J.*

Caleb Arron Dack, 39, Montclair, N.J.*

Carlos S. DaCosta, 41, Elizabeth, N.J.*

John D'Allara, 47, Pearl River, N.Y.*

Vincent D'Amadeo, 36, East Patchoque, N.Y.*

Thomas A. Damaskinos, 33, Matawan, N.J.*

Jack L. D'Ambrosi, 45, Woodcliff Lake, N.J.

Jeannine Marie Damiani-Jones, 28, New York, N.Y.*

Patrick W. Danahy, 35, Yorktown Heights, N.Y.*

Nana Kwuku Danso, 47, New York, N.Y.

Mary D'Antonio, 55, New York, N.Y.

Vincent G. Danz, 38, Farmingdale, N.Y.*

Dwight Donald Darcy, 55, Bronxville, N.Y.*

Elizabeth Ann Darling, 28, Newark, N.J.*

Annette Andrea Dataram, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Lt. Edward Alexander D'Atri, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Michael D. D'Auria, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Lawrence Davidson, 51, New York, N.Y.*

Michael Allen Davidson, 27, Westfield, N.J.*

Scott Matthew Davidson, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Titus Davidson, 55, New York, N.Y.

Niurka Davila, 47, New York, N.Y.*

Clinton Davis, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Wayne Terrial Davis, 29, Fort Meade, Md.*

Calvin Dawson, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Anthony Richard Dawson, 32, Southampton, Hampshire, England*

Edward James Day, 45, New York, N.Y.*

Emerita (Emy) De La Pena, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Melanie Louise De Vere, 30, London, England*

William T. Dean, 35, Floral Park, N.Y.*

Robert J. DeAngelis, 48, West Hempstead, N.Y.*

Thomas P. Deangelis, 51, Westbury, N.Y.*

Tara Debek, 35, Babylon, N.Y.*

Anna Debin, 30, East Farmingdale, N.Y.*

James V. DeBlase, 45, Manalapan, N.J.*

Paul DeCola, 39, Ridgewood, N.Y.*

Simon Dedvukaj, 26, Mohegan Lake, N.Y.*

Jason Christopher DeFazio, 29, New York, N.Y.*

David A. Defeo, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Jennifer DeJesus, 23, New York, N.Y.*

Monique E. DeJesus, 28, New York, N.Y.*

Nereida DeJesus, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Donald A. Delapenha, 37, Allendale, N.J.*

Vito Joseph Deleo, 41, New York, N.Y.*

Danielle Delie, 47, New York, N.Y.*

Colleen Ann Deloughery, 41, Bayonne, N.J.*

Anthony Demas, 61, New York, N.Y.*

Martin DeMeo, 47, Farmingville, N.Y.*

Francis X. Deming, 47, Franklin Lakes, N.J.*

Carol K. Demitz, 49, New York, N.Y.*

Kevin Dennis, 43, Peapack, N.J.

Thomas F. Dennis, 43, Setauket, N.Y.*

Jean C. DePalma, 42, Newfoundland, N.J.*

Jose Nicolas Depena, 42, New York, N.Y.

Robert J. Deraney, 43, New York, N.Y.*

Michael DeRienzo, 37, Hoboken, N.J.*

David Paul Derubbio, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Jemal Legesse DeSantis, 28, Jersey City, N.J.*

Christian L. DeSimone, 23, Ringwood, N.J.*

Edward DeSimone, 36, Atlantic Highlands, N.J.*

Lt. Andrew Desperito, 44, Patchogue, N.Y.*

Michael Jude D'Esposito, 32, Morganville, N.J.*

Cindy Ann Deuel, 28, New York, N.Y.*

Jerry DeVito, 66, New York, N.Y.*

Robert P. Devitt, 36, Plainsboro, N.J.*

Dennis Lawrence Devlin, 51, Washingtonville, N.Y.*

Gerard Dewan, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Simon Suleman Ali Kassamali Dhanani, 62, Hartsdale, N.Y.*

Michael L. DiAgostino, 41, Garden City, N.Y.*

Matthew Diaz, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Nancy Diaz, 28, New York, N.Y.

Obdulio Ruiz Diaz, 44, New York, N.Y.*

Lourdes Galletti Diaz, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Michael Diaz-Piedra, 49*

Judith Belguese Diaz-Sierra, 32, Bay Shore, N.Y.*

Patricia F. DiChiaro, 63, New York, N.Y.*

Joseph Dermot Dickey, 50, Manhasset, N.Y.*

Lawrence Patrick Dickinson, 35, Morganville, N.J.*

Michael David Diehl, 48, Brick, N.J.*

John DiFato, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Vincent F. DiFazio, 43, Hampton, N.J.*

Carl DiFranco, 27, New York, N.Y.*

Donald J. DiFranco, 43, New York, N.Y.*

Debra Ann DiMartino, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Stephen P. Dimino, 48, Basking Ridge, N.J.*

William J. Dimmling, 47, Garden City, N.Y.*

Christopher Dincuff, 31, Jersey City, N.J.*

Jeffrey M. Dingle, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Anthony DiOnisio, 38, Glen Rock, N.J.*

George DiPasquale, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Joseph DiPilato, 57, New York, N.Y.*

Douglas Frank DiStefano, 24, Hoboken, N.J.*

Ramzi A. Doany, 35, Bayonne, N.J., Jordanian*

John J. Doherty, 58, Hartsdale, N.Y.*

Melissa C. Doi, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Brendan Dolan, 37, Glen Rock, N.J.*

Neil Dollard, 28, Hoboken, N.J.*

James Joseph Domanico, 56, New York, N.Y.*

Benilda Pascua Domingo, 37, New York, N.Y.

Charles (Carlos) Dominguez, 34, East Meadow, N.Y.*

Geronimo (Jerome) Mark Patrick Dominguez, 37, Holtsville, N.Y.*

Lt. Kevin W. Donnelly, 43, New York, N.Y.*

Jacqueline Donovan, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Stephen Dorf, 39, New Milford, N.J.*

Thomas Dowd, 37, Monroe, N.Y.*

Lt. Kevin Christopher Dowdell, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Mary Yolanda Dowling, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Raymond M. Downey, 63, Deer Park, N.Y.*

Joseph M. Doyle, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Frank Joseph Doyle, 39, Englewood, N.J.*

Randy Drake, 37, Lee's Summit, Mo.*

Stephen Patrick Driscoll, 38, Lake Carmel, N.Y.*

Mirna A. Duarte, 31, New York, N.Y.

Luke A. Dudek, 50, Livingston, N.J.*

Christopher Michael Duffy, 23, New York, N.Y.*

Gerard Duffy, 53, Manorville, N.Y.*

Michael Joseph Duffy, 29, Northport, N.Y.*

Thomas W. Duffy, 52, Pittsford, N.Y.

Antoinette Duger, 44, Belleville, N.J.*

Jackie Sayegh Duggan, 34*

Sareve Dukat, 53, New York, N.Y.*

Christopher Joseph Dunne, 28, Mineola, N.Y.

Richard A. Dunstan, 54, New Providence, N.J.*

Patrick Thomas Dwyer, 37, Nissequogue, N.Y.*

Joseph Anthony Eacobacci, 26, New York, N.Y.*

John Bruce Eagleson, 53, Middlefield, Conn.*

Robert D. Eaton, 37, Manhasset, N.Y.*

Dean P. Eberling, 44, Cranford, N.J.*

Margaret Ruth Echtermann, 33, Hoboken, N.J.*

Paul Robert Eckna, 28, West New York, N.J.

Constantine (Gus) Economos, 41, New York, N.Y.*

Dennis Michael Edwards, 35, Huntington, N.Y.*

Michael Hardy Edwards, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Lisa Egan, 31, Cliffside Park, N.J.*

Capt. Martin Egan, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Michael Egan, 51, Middletown, N.J.*

Christine Egan, 55, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada*

Samantha Egan, 24, Jersey City, N.J.*

Carole Eggert, 60, New York, N.Y.

Lisa Caren Weinstein Ehrlich, 36, New York, N.Y.*

John Ernst (Jack) Eichler, 69, Cedar Grove, N.J.*

Eric Adam Eisenberg, 32, Commack, N.Y.*

Daphne F. Elder, 36, Newark, N.J.*

Michael J. Elferis, 27, College Point, N.Y.*

Mark J. Ellis, 26, South Huntington, N.Y.*

Valerie Silver Ellis, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Albert Alfy William Elmarry, 30, North Brunswick, N.J.*

Edgar H. Emery, 45, Clifton, N.J.*

Doris Suk-Yuen Eng, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Christopher S. Epps, 29, New York, N.Y.*

Ulf Ramm Ericson, 79, Greenwich, Conn.*

Erwin L. Erker, 41, Farmingdale, N.Y.*

William J. Erwin, 30, Verona, N.J.*

Sarah (Ali) Escarcega, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Jose Espinal, 31

Fanny M. Espinoza, 29, Teaneck, N.J.*

Francis Esposito, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Lt. Michael Esposito, 41, New York, N.Y.*

William Esposito, 51, Bellmore, N.Y.*

Brigette Ann Esposito, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Ruben Esquilin, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Sadie Ette, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Barbara G. Etzold, 43, Jersey City, N.J.*

Eric Brian Evans, 31, Weehawken, N.J.*

Robert Edward Evans, 36, Franklin Square, N.Y.*

Meredith Emily June Ewart, 29, Hoboken, N.J.*

Catherine K. Fagan, 58, New York, N.Y.*

Patricia M. Fagan, 55, Toms River, N.J.*

Keith G. Fairben, 24, Floral Park, N.Y.*

William Fallon, 38, Coram, N.Y.*

William F. Fallon, 53, Rocky Hill, N.J.*

Anthony J. Fallone, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Dolores B. Fanelli, 38, Farmingville, N.Y.*

John Joseph Fanning, 54, West Hempstead, N.Y.*

Kathleen (Kit) Faragher, 33, Denver, Colo.*

Capt. Thomas Farino, 37, Bohemia, N.Y.*

Nancy Carole Farley, 45, Jersey City, N.J.*

Elizabeth Ann (Betty) Farmer, 62, New York, N.Y.*

Douglas Farnum, 33, New York, N.Y.*

John W. Farrell, 41, Basking Ridge, N.J.

Terrence Patrick Farrell, 45, Huntington, N.Y.*

John G. Farrell, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Capt. Joseph Farrelly, 47, New York, N.Y.*

Thomas P. Farrelly, 54, East Northport, N.Y.*

Syed Abdul Fatha, 54, Newark, N.J.*

Christopher Faughnan, 37, South Orange, N.J.*

Wendy R. Faulkner, 47, Mason, Ohio*

Shannon M. Fava, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Bernard D. Favuzza, 52, Suffern, N.Y.*

Robert Fazio, 41, Freeport, N.Y.*

Ronald C. Fazio, 57, Closter, N.J.*

William Feehan, 72, New York, N.Y.*

Francis J. (Frank) Feely, 41, Middletown, N.Y.*

Garth E. Feeney, 28, New York, N.Y.*

Sean B. Fegan, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Lee S. Fehling, 28, Wantagh, N.Y.*

Peter Feidelberg, 34, Hoboken, N.J.*

Alan D. Feinberg, 48, New York, N.Y.*

Rosa Maria Feliciano, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Edward T. Fergus, 40, Wilton, Conn.

George Ferguson, 54, Teaneck, N.J.

Henry Fernandez, 23, New York, N.Y.*

Judy H. Fernandez, 27, Parlin, N.J.*

Jose Manuel Contreras Fernandez, El Aguacate, Jalisco, Mexico

Elisa Giselle Ferraina, 27, London, England*

Anne Marie Sallerin Ferreira, 29, Jersey City, N.J.*

Robert John Ferris, 63, Garden City, N.Y.*

David Francis Ferrugio, 46, Middletown, N.J.

Louis V. Fersini, 38, Basking Ridge, N.J.*

Michael David Ferugio, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Bradley James Fetchet, 24, New York, N.Y.*

Jennifer Louise Fialko, 29, Teaneck, N.J.*

Kristen Fiedel, 27, New York, N.Y.*

Samuel Fields, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Michael Bradley Finnegan, 37, Basking Ridge, N.J.

Timothy J. Finnerty, 33, Glen Rock, N.J.*

Michael Curtis Fiore, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Stephen J. Fiorelli, 43, Aberdeen, N.J.*

Paul M. Fiori, 31, Yorktown Heights, N.Y.*

John Fiorito, 40, Stamford, Conn.*

Lt. John R. Fischer, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Andrew Fisher, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Thomas J. Fisher, 36, Union, N.J.*

Bennett Lawson Fisher, 58, Stamford, Conn.

John Roger Fisher, 46, Bayonne, N.J.*

Lucy Fishman, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Ryan D. Fitzgerald, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Thomas Fitzpatrick, 35, Tuckahoe, N.Y.*

Richard P. Fitzsimons, 57, Lynbrook, N.Y.*

Salvatore A. Fiumefreddo, 47, Manalapan, N.J.*

Christina Donovan Flannery, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Eileen Flecha, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Andre G. Fletcher, 37, North Babylon, N.Y.*

Carl Flickinger, 38, Conyers, N.Y.*

John Joseph Florio, 33, Oceanside, N.Y.*

Joseph W. Flounders, 46, East Stroudsburg, Pa.*

David Fodor, 38, Garrison, N.Y.*

Lt. Michael N. Fodor, 53, Warwick, N.Y.*

Steven Mark Fogel, 40, Westfield, N.Y.*

Thomas Foley, 32, West Nyack, N.Y.*

David Fontana, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Chih Min (Dennis) Foo, 40, Holmdel, N.J.*

Del Rose Forbes-Cheatham, 48, New York, N.Y.*

Godwin Forde, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Donald A. Foreman, 53, New York, N.Y.*

Christopher Hugh Forsythe, 44, Basking Ridge, N.J.*

Claudia Alicia Martinez Foster, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Noel J. Foster, 40, Bridgewater, N.J.*

Ana Fosteris, 58, Coram, N.Y.*

Robert J. Foti, 42, Albertson, N.Y.*

Jeffrey L. Fox, 40, Cranbury, N.J.*

Virginia Fox, 58, New York, N.Y.*

Virgin (Lucy) Francis, 62, New York, N.Y.*

Pauline Francis, 57, New York, N.Y.*

Joan Francis

Gary J. Frank, 35, South Amboy, N.J.*

Morton Frank, 31, New York, N.Y.

Peter Christopher Frank, 29, New York, N.Y.*

Richard K. Fraser, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Kevin Joseph Frawley, 34, Bronxville, N.Y.*

Clyde Frazier, 41, New York, N.Y.*

Lillian I. Frederick, 46, Teaneck, N.J.*

Andrew Fredericks, 40, Suffern, N.Y.*

Tamitha Freemen, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Brett O. Freiman, 29, Roslyn, N.Y.*

Lt. Peter L. Freund, 45, Westtown, N.Y.*

Arlene E. Fried, 49, Roslyn Heights, N.Y.*

Alan Wayne Friedlander, 52, Yorktown Heights, N.Y.*

Andrew K. Friedman, 44, Woodbury, N.Y.*

Gregg J. Froehner, 46, Chester, N.J.*

Peter Christian Fry, 36, Wilton, Conn.*

Clement Fumando, 59, New York, N.Y.*

Steven Elliot Furman, 40, Wesley Hills, N.Y.*

Paul James Furmato, 37, Colts Neck, N.J.*

Fredric Gabler, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Richard S. Gabrielle, 50, West Haven, Conn.*

James Andrew Gadiel, 23, New York, N.Y.*

Pamela Gaff, 51, Robinsville, N.J.

Ervin Vincent Gailliard, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Deanna L. Galante, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Grace Galante, 29, New York, N.Y.*

Anthony Edward Gallagher, 41, New York, N.Y.*

Daniel James Gallagher, 23, Red Bank, N.J.*

John Patrick Gallagher, 31, Yonkers, N.Y.*

Cono E. Gallo, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Vincenzo Gallucci, 36, Monroe Township, N.J.*

Thomas Edward Galvin, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Giovanna (Genni) Gambale, 27, New York, N.Y.*

Thomas Gambino, 48, Babylon, N.Y.*

Giann F. Gamboa, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Peter J. Ganci, 55, North Massapequa, N.Y.*

Claude Michael Gann, 41, Roswell, Ga.*

Lt. Charles William Garbarini, 44, Pleasantville, N.Y.*

Cesar Garcia, 36, New York, N.Y.*

David Garcia, 40, Freeport, N.Y.*

Jorge Luis Morron Garcia, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Juan Garcia, 50, New York, N.Y.*

Marlyn C. Garcia, 21, New York, N.Y.*

Christopher Gardner, 36, Darien, Conn.*

Douglas B. Gardner, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Harvey J. Gardner, 35, Lakewood, N.J.*

Thomas A. Gardner, 39, Oceanside, N.Y.*

Jeffrey B. Gardner, 36, Hoboken, N.J.*

William Arthur Gardner, 45, Lynbrook, N.Y.*

Francesco Garfi, 29, New York, N.Y.*

Rocco Gargano, 28, Bayside, N.Y.*

James M. Gartenberg, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Matthew David Garvey, 37*

Bruce Gary, 51, Bellmore, N.Y.*

Palmina Delli Gatti, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Boyd A. Gatton, 38, Jersey City, N.J.*

Donald Richard Gavagan, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Terence D. Gazzani, 24, New York, N.Y.*

Gary Geidel, 44, New York, N.Y.*

Paul Hamilton Geier, 36, Farmingdale, N.Y.*

Julie M. Geis, 44, Lees Summit, Mo.*

Peter Gelinas, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Steven Paul Geller, 52, New York, N.Y.*

Howard G. Gelling, 28, New York, N.Y.

Peter Victor Genco, 36, Rockville Centre, N.Y.*

Steven Gregory Genovese, 37, Basking Ridge, N.J.*

Alayne F. Gentul, 44, Mountain Lakes, N.J.*

Edward F. Geraghty, 45, Rockville Centre, N.Y.*

Suzanne Geraty, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Ralph Gerhardt, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Robert J. Gerlich, 56, Monroe, Conn.*

Denis P. Germain, 33, Tuxedo Park, N.Y.*

Marina R. Gertsberg, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Susan M. Getzendanner, 57, New York, N.Y.*

James Gerard Geyer, 41, Rockville Centre, N.Y.*

Joseph M. Giaccone, 43, Monroe, N.J.*

Lt. Vincent Francis Giammona, 40, Valley Stream, N.Y.*

Debra L. Gibbon, 43, Hackettstown, N.J.*

James A. Giberson, 43, New York, N.Y.*

Craig Neil Gibson, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Ronnie Gies, 43, Merrick, N.Y.*

Laura A. Giglio, 35, Oceanside, N.Y.*

Andrew Clive Gilbert, 39, Califon, N.J.

Timothy Paul Gilbert, 35, Lebanon, N.J.

Paul Stuart Gilbey, 39, Chatham, N.J.*

Paul John Gill, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Mark Y. Gilles, 33, New York, N.Y.

Evan H. Gillette, 40, New York, N.Y.*

Ronald Gilligan, 43, Norwalk, Conn.*

Sgt. Rodney C. Gillis, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Laura Gilly, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Lt. John F. Ginley, 37, Warwick, N.Y.*

Jeffrey Giordano, 46, New York, N.Y.*

John Giordano, 46, Newburgh, N.Y.*

Donna Marie Giordano, 44, Parlin, N.J.*

Steven A. Giorgetti, 43, Manhasset, N.Y.*

Martin Giovinazzo, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Kum-Kum Girolamo, 41, New York, N.Y.*

Salvatore Gitto, 44, Manalapan, N.J.*

Cynthia Giugliano, 46, Nesconset, N.Y.*

Mon Gjonbalaj, 65, New York, N.Y.*

Dianne Gladstone, 55, New York, N.Y.*

Keith Alexander Glascoe, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Thomas I. Glasser, 40, Summit, N.J.*

Harry Glenn, 38, Piscataway, N.J.*

Steven Lawrence Glick, 42, Greenwich, Conn.*

Barry H. Glick, 55, Wayne, N.J.*

John T. Gnazzo, 32, New York, N.Y.*

William (Bill) Robert Godshalk, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Michael Gogliormella, 43, New Providence, N.J.*

Brian Fredric Goldberg, 26, Union, N.J.*

Jeffrey Grant Goldflam, 48, Melville, N.Y.*

Michelle Herman Goldstein, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Monica Goldstein, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Steven Goldstein, 35, Princeton, N.J.*

Andrew H. Golkin, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Dennis James Gomes, 40, New York, N.Y.*

Manuel Gomez, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Enrique Antonio Gomez, 42, New York, N.Y.

Jose Bienvenido Gomez, 45, New York, N.Y.

Wilder Gomez, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Jenine Gonzalez, 27, New York, N.Y.*

Joel Guevara Gonzalez, 23, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico

Rosa J. Gonzalez, 32, Jersey City, N.J.*

Mauricio Gonzalez, 27, New York, N.Y.*

Calvin J. Gooding, 38, Riverside, N.Y.*

Harry Goody, 50, New York, N.Y.*

Kiran Reddy Gopu, 24, Bridgeport, Conn.*

Catherine Carmen Gorayeb, 41, New York, N.Y.*

Kerene Gordon, 43, New York, N.Y.

Sebastian Gorki, 27, New York, N.Y.*

Kieran Gorman, 35, Yonkers, N.Y.*

Thomas E. Gorman, 41, Middlesex, N.J.*

Michael Edward Gould, 29, Hoboken, N.J.*

Yugi Goya, 42, Rye, N.Y.*

Jon Richard Grabowski, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Christopher Michael Grady, 39, Cranford, N.J.*

Edwin John Graf, 48, Rowayton, Conn.*

David M. Graifman, 40, New York, N.Y.*

Gilbert Granados, 51, Hicksville, N.Y.*

Elvira Granitto, 43, New York, N.Y.

Winston Arthur Grant, 59, West Hempstead, N.Y.*

Christopher Stewart Gray, 32, Weehawken, N.J.*

James Michael Gray, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Linda Mair Grayling, 44, New York, N.Y.*

John Michael Grazioso, 41, Middletown, N.J.*

Timothy Grazioso, 42, Gulf Stream, Fla.*

Wade Brian Green, 42, Westbury, N.Y.*

Derrick Arthur Green, 44, New York, N.Y.*

Elaine Myra Greenberg, 56, New York, N.Y.*

Gayle R. Greene, 51, Montville, N.J.*

James Arthur Greenleaf, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Eileen Marsha Greenstein, 52, Morris Plains, N.J.*

Elizabeth (Lisa) Martin Gregg, 52, New York, N.Y.

Donald H. Gregory, 62, Ramsey, N.J.*

Florence M. Gregory, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Denise Gregory, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Pedro (David) Grehan, 35, Hoboken, N.J.*

John M. Griffin, 38, Waldwick, N.J.*

Tawanna Griffin, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Joan D. Griffith, 39, Willingboro, N.J.*

Warren Grifka, 54, New York, N.Y.*

Ramon Grijalvo, 58*

Joseph F. Grillo, 46, New York, N.Y.*

David Grimner, 51, Merrick, N.Y.*

Kenneth Grouzalis, 56, Lyndhurst, N.J.*

Joseph Grzelak, 52, New York, N.Y.*

Matthew J. Grzymalski, 34, New Hyde Park, N.Y.*

Robert Joseph Gschaar, 55, Spring Valley, N.Y.*

Liming (Michael) Gu, 34, Piscataway, N.J.*

Jose A. Guadalupe, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Yan Zhu (Cindy) Guan, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Geoffrey E. Guja, 47, Lindenhurst, N.Y.*

Lt. Joseph Gullickson, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Babita Guman, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Douglas B. Gurian, 38, Tenafly, N.J.*

Philip T. Guza, 54, Sea Bright, N.J.*

Barbara Guzzardo, 49, Glendale, N.Y.*

Peter Gyulavary, 44, Warwick, N.Y.*

Gary Robert Haag, 36, Ossining, N.Y.*

Andrea Lyn Haberman, 25, Chicago, Ill.*

Barbara M. Habib, 49, New York, N.Y.*

Philip Haentzler, 49, New York, N.Y.*

Nizam A. Hafiz, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Karen Hagerty, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Steven Hagis, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Mary Lou Hague, 26, New York, N.Y.*

David Halderman, 40, New York, N.Y.*

Maile Rachel Hale, 26, Cambridge, Mass.*

Richard Hall, 49, Purchase, N.Y.*

Vaswald George Hall, 50, New York, N.Y.*

Robert John Halligan, 59, Basking Ridge, N.J.*

Lt. Vincent Gerard Halloran, 43, North Salem, N.Y.*

James D. Halvorson, 56, Greenwich, Conn.*

Mohammad Salman Hamdani, 23, New York, N.Y.*

Felicia Hamilton, 62, New York, N.Y.

Robert Hamilton, 43, Washingtonville, N.Y.*

Frederic Kim Han, 45, Marlboro, N.J.*

Christopher James Hanley, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Sean Hanley, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Valerie Joan Hanna, 57, Freeville, N.Y.*

Thomas Hannafin, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Kevin James Hannaford, 32, Basking Ridge, N.J.*

Michael L. Hannan, 34, Lynbrook, N.Y.*

Dana Hannon, 29, Suffern, N.Y.*

Vassilios G. Haramis, 56, New York, N.Y.*

James A. Haran, 41, Malverne, N.Y.*

Jeffrey P. Hardy, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Timothy John Hargrave, 38, Readington, N.J.*

Daniel Harlin, 41, Kent, N.Y.*

Frances Haros, 76, New York, N.Y.*

Lt. Harvey L. Harrell, 49, New York, N.Y.*

Lt. Stephen Gary Harrell, 44, Warwick, N.Y.*

Stewart D. Harris, 52, Marlboro, N.J.*

Aisha Harris, 22, New York, N.Y.*

John Patrick Hart, 38, Danville, Calif.*

John Clinton Hartz, 64, Basking Ridge, N.J.

Emeric J. Harvey, 56, Montclair, N.J.*

Capt. Thomas Theodore Haskell, 37, Massapequa, N.Y.*

Timothy Haskell, 34, Seaford, N.Y.*

Joseph John Hasson, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Capt. Terence S. Hatton, 41, New York, N.Y.*

Leonard William Hatton, 45, Ridgefield Park, N.J.*

Michael Helmut Haub, 34, Roslyn Heights, N.Y.*

Timothy Aaron Haviland, 41, Oceanside, N.Y.*

Donald G. Havlish, 53, Yardley, Pa.*

Anthony Hawkins, 30, New York, N.Y.

Nobuhiro Hayatsu, 36, Scarsdale, N.Y.*

Philip Hayes, 67, Northport, N.Y.*

William Ward Haynes, 35, Rye, N.Y.*

Scott Hazelcorn, 29, Hoboken, N.J.*

Lt. Michael K. Healey, 42, East Patchogue, N.Y.*

Roberta Bernstein Heber, 60, New York, N.Y.*

Charles Francis Xavier Heeran, 23, Belle Harbor, N.Y.*

John Heffernan, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Howard Joseph Heller, 37, Ridgefield, Conn.*

JoAnn L. Heltibridle, 46, Springfield, N.J.*

Mark F. Hemschoot, 45, Red Bank, N.J.*

Ronnie Lee Henderson, 52, Newburgh, N.Y.*

Janet Hendricks, 48, New York, N.Y.

Brian Hennessey, 35, Ringoes, N.J.

Michelle Marie Henrique, 27, New York, N.Y.*

Joseph P. Henry, 25, New York, N.Y.*

William Henry, 49, New York, N.Y.*

John Henwood, 35, New York, N.Y.

Robert Allan Hepburn, 39, Union, N.J.*

Mary (Molly) Herencia, 47, New York, N.Y.*

Lindsay Coates Herkness, 58, New York, N.Y.*

Harvey Robert Hermer, 59, New York, N.Y.*

Claribel Hernandez, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Norberto Hernandez, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Raul Hernandez, 51, New York, N.Y.*

Gary Herold, 44, Farmingdale, N.Y.*

Jeffrey A. Hersch, 53, New York, N.Y.*

Thomas Hetzel, 33, Elmont, N.Y.*

Capt. Brian Hickey, 47, New York, N.Y.*

Ysidro Hidalgo-Tejada, 47, New York, N.Y., Dominican Republic*

Lt. Timothy Higgins, 43, Farmingville, N.Y.*

Robert D. Higley, 29, New Fairfield, Conn.*

Todd Russell Hill, 34, Boston, Mass.*

Clara Victorine Hinds, 52, New York, N.Y.*

Neal Hinds, 28, New York, N.Y.*

Mark D. Hindy, 28, New York, N.Y.*

Richard Bruce Van Hine, 48, Greenwood Lake, N.Y.*

Katsuyuki Hirai, 32, Hartsdale, N.Y.

Heather Malia Ho, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Tara Yvette Hobbs, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Thomas A. Hobbs, 41, Baldwin, N.Y.*

James L. Hobin, 47, Marlborough, Conn.*

Robert Wayne Hobson, 36, New Providence, N.J.*

DaJuan Hodges, 29, New York, N.Y.*

Ronald George Hoerner, 58, Massapequa Park, N.Y.*

Patrick Aloysius Hoey, 53, Middletown, N.J.*

Marcia Hoffman, 52, New York, N.Y.

Stephen G. Hoffman, 36, Long Beach, N.Y.*

Frederick J. Hoffmann, 53, Freehold, N.J.*

Michele L. Hoffmann, 27, Freehold, N.J.*

Judith Florence Hofmiller, 53, Brookfield, Conn.*

Thomas Warren Hohlweck, 57, Harrison, N.Y.*

Jonathan R. Hohmann, 48, New York, N.Y.*

Joseph Francis Holland, 32, Glen Rock, N.J.*

John Holland, 30

Elizabeth Holmes, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Thomas P. Holohan, 36, Chester, N.Y.*

Bradley Hoorn, 22, New York, N.Y.*

James P. Hopper, 51, Farmingdale, N.Y.*

Montgomery McCullough Hord, 46, Pelham, N.Y.*

Michael Horn, 27, Lynbrook, N.Y.*

Matthew D. Horning, 26, Hoboken, N.J.*

Robert L. Horohoe, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Aaron Horwitz, 24, New York, N.Y.*

Charles J. Houston, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Uhuru G. Houston, 32, Englewood, N.J.*

George Howard, 45, Hicksville, N.Y.*

Michael C. Howell, 60, New York, N.Y.*

Steven L. Howell, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Jennifer L. Howley, 34, New Hyde Park, N.Y.*

Milagros "Millie" Hromada, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Marian Hrycak, 56, New York, N.Y.*

Stephen Huczko, 44, Bethlehem, N.J.*

Kris R. Hughes, 30, Nesconset, N.Y.*

Melissa Harrington Hughes, 31, San Francisco, Calif.*

Thomas F. Hughes, 46, Spring Lake Heights, N.J.*

Timothy Robert Hughes, 43, Madison, N.J.*

Paul R. Hughes, 38, Stamford, Conn.*

Robert T. "Bobby" Hughes, 23, Sayreville, N.J.*

Susan Huie, 43, Fair Lawn, N.J.*

Mychal Lamar Hulse, 30, New York, N.Y.*

William C. Hunt, 32, Norwalk, Conn.*

Joseph G. Hunter, 31, South Hempstead, N.Y.*

Robert Hussa, 51, Roslyn, N.Y.*

Capt. Walter Hynes, 46, Belle Harbor, N.Y.*

Thomas E. Hynes, 28, Norwalk, Conn.*

Joseph Anthony Ianelli, 28, Hoboken, N.J.*

Zuhtu Ibis, 25, Clifton, N.J.*

Jonathan Lee Ielpi, 29, Great Neck, N.Y.*

Michael Patrick Iken, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Daniel Ilkanayev, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Capt. Frederick Ill, 49, Pearl River, N.Y.*

Abraham Nethanel Ilowitz, 51, New York, N.Y.

Anthony P. Infante, 47, Chatham, N.J.*

Louis S. Inghilterra, 45, New Castle, N.Y.*

Christopher N. Ingrassia, 28, Watchung, N.J.*

Paul Innella, 33, East Brunswick, N.J.*

Stephanie V. Irby, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Douglas Irgang, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Todd A. Isaac, 29, New York, N.Y.*

Erik Hans Isbrandtsen, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Taizo Ishikawa, 50

Aram Iskenderian, 41, Merrick, N.Y.*

John Iskyan, 41, Wilton, Conn.*

Kazushige Ito, 35, New York, N.Y.

Aleksandr Valeryerich Ivantsov, 23, New York, N.Y.

Virginia Jablonski, 49, Matawan, N.J.*

Brooke Alexandra Jackman, 23, New York, N.Y.*

Aaron Jacobs, 27, New York, N.Y.*

Jason Kyle Jacobs, 32, Mendham, N.J.*

Michael Grady Jacobs, 54, Danbury, Conn.*

Ariel Louis Jacobs, 29, Briarcliff Manor, N.Y.*

Steven A. Jacobson, 53, New York, N.Y.*

Ricknauth Jaggernauth, 58, New York, N.Y.*

Jake Denis Jagoda, 24, Huntington, N.Y.*

Yudh V.S. Jain, 54, New City, N.Y.*

Maria Jakubiak, 41, Ridgewood, N.Y.*

Gricelda E. James, 44, Willingboro, N.J.*

Ernest James, 40, New York, N.Y.*

Mark Jardim, 39, New York, N.Y.

Mohammed Jawara, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Francois Jean-Pierre, 58, New York, N.Y.

Maxima Jean-Pierre, 40, Bellport, N.Y.

Paul E. Jeffers, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Joseph Jenkins, 47, New York, N.Y.*

Alan K. Jensen, 49, Wyckoff, N.J.*

Prem N. Jerath, 57, Edison, N.J.*

Farah Jeudy, 32, Spring Valley, N.Y.*

Hweidar Jian, 42, East Brunswick, N.J.*

Eliezer Jimenez, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Luis Jimenez, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Nicholas John, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Charles Gregory John, 44, New York, N.Y.*

Scott M. Johnson, 26, New York, N.Y.*

LaShawana Johnson, 27, New York, N.Y.*

William Johnston, 31, North Babylon, N.Y.*

Arthur Joseph Jones, 37, Ossining, N.Y.

Donald W. Jones, 43, Fairless Hills, Pa.*

Allison Horstmann Jones, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Brian L. Jones, 44, New York, N.Y.*

Christopher D. Jones, 53, Huntington, N.Y.

Donald T. Jones, 39, Livingston, N.J.*

Linda Jones, 50, New York, N.Y.*

Mary S. Jones, 72, New York, N.Y.*

Andrew Jordan, 35, Remsenburg, N.Y.*

Robert Thomas Jordan, 34, Williston, N.Y.*

Ingeborg Joseph, 60, Germany

Stephen Joseph, 39, Franklin Park, N.J.*

Karl Henri Joseph, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Albert Joseph, 79

Jane Eileen Josiah, 47, Bellmore, N.Y.*

Lt. Anthony Jovic, 39, Massapequa, N.Y.*

Angel Luis Juarbe, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Karen Susan Juday, 52, New York, N.Y.*

The Rev. Mychal Judge, 68, New York, N.Y.*

Paul W. Jurgens, 47, Levittown, N.Y.*

Thomas Edward Jurgens, 26, Lawrence, N.Y.*

Kacinga Kabeya, 63, McKinney, Texas

Shashi Kiran Lakshmikantha Kadaba, 25, Hackensack, N.J.*

Gavkharoy Mukhometovna Kamardinova, 26, New York, N.Y.

Shari Kandell, 27, Wyckoff, N.J.*

Howard Lee Kane, 40, Hazlet, N.J.*

Jennifer Lynn Kane, 26, Fair Lawn, N.J.*

Vincent D. Kane, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Joon Koo Kang, 34, Riverdale, N.J.*

Sheldon R. Kanter, 53, Edison, N.J.*

Deborah H. Kaplan, 45, Paramus, N.J.*

Alvin Peter Kappelmann, 57, Green Brook, N.J.*

Charles Karczewski, 34, Union, N.J.*

William A. Karnes, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Douglas G. Karpiloff, 53, Mamaroneck, N.Y.*

Charles L. Kasper, 54, New York, N.Y.*

Andrew Kates, 37, New York, N.Y.*

John Katsimatides, 31, East Marion, N.Y.*

Sgt. Robert Kaulfers, 49, Kenilworth, N.J.*

Don Jerome Kauth, 51, Saratoga Springs, N.Y.*

Hideya Kawauchi, 36, Fort Lee, N.J.*

Edward T. Keane, 66, West Caldwell, N.J.*

Richard M. Keane, 54, Wethersfield, Conn.*

Lisa Kearney-Griffin, 35, Jamaica, N.Y.*

Karol Ann Keasler, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Paul Hanlon Keating, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Leo Russell Keene, 33, Westfield, N.J.*

Joseph J. Keller, 31, Park Ridge, N.J.*

Peter Rodney Kellerman, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Joseph P. Kellett, 37, Riverdale, N.Y.*

Frederick H. Kelley, 57, Huntington, N.Y.*

Maurice Patrick Kelly, 41, New York, N.Y.*

Thomas W. Kelly, 51, New York, N.Y.*

Timothy C. Kelly, 37, Port Washington, N.Y.*

James Joseph Kelly, 39, Oceanside, N.Y.*

Joseph A. Kelly, 40, Oyster Bay, N.Y.*

Richard John Kelly, 50, New York, N.Y.*

Thomas Michael Kelly, 41, Wyckoff, N.J.*

Thomas Richard Kelly, 38, Riverhead, N.Y.*

William Hill Kelly, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Robert C. Kennedy, 55, Toms River, N.J.*

Thomas J. Kennedy, 36, Islip Terrace, N.Y.*

John Keohane, 41, Jersey City, N.J.*

Lt. Ronald T. Kerwin, 42, Levittown, N.Y.*

Howard L. Kestenbaum, 56, Montclair, N.J.*

Douglas D. Ketcham, 27, New York, N.Y.*

Ruth E. Ketler, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Boris Khalif, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Sarah Khan, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Taimour Firaz Khan, 29, New York, N.Y.*

Rajesh Khandelwal, 33, South Plainfield, N.J.*

SeiLai Khoo, 38, Jersey City, N.J.

Michael Kiefer, 25, Hempstead, N.Y.*

Satoshi Kikuchihara, 43, Scarsdale, N.Y.

Andrew Jay-Hoon Kim, 26, Leonia, N.J.*

Lawrence Don Kim, 31, Blue Bell, Pa.*

Mary Jo Kimelman, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Andrew Marshall King, 42, Princeton, N.J.*

Lucille T. King, 59, Ridgewood, N.J.*

Robert King, 36, Bellerose Terrace, N.Y.*

Lisa M. King-Johnson, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Takashi Kinoshita, 46, Rye, N.Y.

Chris Michael Kirby, 21, New York, N.Y.*

Howard (Barry) Kirschbaum, 53, New York, N.Y.*

Glenn Davis Kirwin, 40, Scarsdale, N.Y.*

Richard J. Klares, 59, Somers, N.Y.*

Peter A. Klein, 35, Weehawken, N.J.*

Alan D. Kleinberg, 39, East Brunswick, N.J.*

Karen J. Klitzman, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Ronald Philip Kloepfer, 39, Franklin Square, N.Y.*

Yevgeny Kniazev, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Thomas Patrick Knox, 31, Hoboken, N.J.*

Andrew Knox, 30, Adelaide, Australia*

Rebecca Lee Koborie, 48, Guttenberg, N.J.*

Deborah Kobus, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Gary Edward Koecheler, 57, Harrison, N.Y.*

Frank J. Koestner, 48, New York, N.Y.*

Ryan Kohart, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Vanessa Lynn Kolpak, 21, New York, N.Y.*

Irina Kolpakova, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Suzanne Kondratenko, 27, Chicago, Ill.*

Abdoulaye Kone, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Bon-seok Koo, 42, River Edge, N.J.*

Dorota Kopiczko, 26, Nutley, N.J.*

Scott Kopytko, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Bojan Kostic, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Danielle Kousoulis, 29, New York, N.Y.*

John J. Kren, 52*

William Krukowski, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Lyudmila Ksido, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Shekhar Kumar, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Kenneth Kumpel, 42, Cornwall, N.Y.*

Frederick Kuo, 53, Great Neck, N.Y.*

Patricia Kuras, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Nauka Kushitani, 44, New York, N.Y.

Thomas Joseph Kuveikis, 48, Carmel, N.Y.*

Victor Kwarkye, 35, New York, N.Y.

Kui Fai Kwok, 31, New York, N.Y.

Angela R. Kyte, 49, Boonton, N.J.*

Amarnauth Lachhman, 42, Valley Stream, N.Y.*

Andrew LaCorte, 61, Jersey City, N.J.*

Ganesh Ladkat, 27, Somerset, N.J.*

James P. Ladley, 41, Colts Neck, N.J.*

Daniel M. Van Laere, 46, Glen Rock, N.J.*

Joseph A. Lafalce, 54, New York, N.Y.*

Jeanette LaFond-Menichino, 49, New York, N.Y.*

David LaForge, 50, Port Richmond, N.Y.*

Michael Patrick LaForte, 39, Holmdel, N.J.*

Alan Lafrance, 43*

Juan Lafuente, 61, Poughkeepsie, N.Y.*

Neil K. Lai, 59, East Windsor, N.J.

Vincent A. Laieta, 31, Edison, N.J.*

William David Lake, 44, New York, N.Y.*

Franco Lalama, 45, Nutley, N.J.*

Chow Kwan Lam, 48, Maywood, N.J.*

Stephen LaMantia, 38, Darien, Conn.*

Amy Hope Lamonsoff, 29, New York, N.Y.*

Robert T. Lane, 28, New York, N.Y.*

Brendan M. Lang, 30, Red Bank, N.J.*

Rosanne P. Lang, 42, Middletown, N.J.*

Vanessa Langer, 29, Yonkers, N.Y.*

Mary Lou Langley, 53, New York, N.Y.

Peter J. Langone, 41, Roslyn Heights, N.Y.*

Thomas Langone, 39, Williston Park, N.Y.*

Michele B. Lanza, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Ruth Sheila Lapin, 53, East Windsor, N.J.*

Carol Ann LaPlante, 59, New York, N.Y.*

Ingeborg Astrid Desiree Lariby, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Robin Larkey, 48, Chatham, N.J.*

Christopher Randall Larrabee, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Hamidou S. Larry, 37, New York, N.Y.

Scott Larsen, 35, New York, N.Y.*

John Adam Larson, 37, Colonia, N.J.*

Gary E. Lasko, 49, Memphis, Tenn.*

Nicholas C. Lassman, 28, Cliffside Park, N.J.*

Paul Laszczynski, 49, Paramus, N.J.*

Jeffrey Latouche, 49, New York, N.Y.*

Cristina de Laura

Oscar de Laura

Charles Laurencin, 61, New York, N.Y.*

Stephen James Lauria, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Maria Lavache, 60, New York, N.Y.*

Denis F. Lavelle, 42, Yonkers, N.Y.*

Jeannine M. LaVerde, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Anna A. Laverty, 52, Middletown, N.J.*

Steven Lawn, 28, West Windsor, N.J.*

Robert A. Lawrence, 41, Summit, N.J.*

Nathaniel Lawson, 61, New York, N.Y.*

Eugen Lazar, 27, New York, N.Y.*

James Patrick Leahy, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Lt. Joseph Gerard Leavey, 45, Pelham, N.Y.*

Neil Leavy, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Leon Lebor, 51, Jersey City, N.J.*

Kenneth Charles Ledee, 38, Monmouth, N.J.

Alan J. Lederman, 43, New York, N.Y.*

Elena Ledesma, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Alexis Leduc, 45, New York, N.Y.*

Hyun-joon (Paul) Lee, 32, New York, N.Y.

Jong-min Lee, 24, New York, N.Y.

Myung-woo Lee, 41, Lyndhurst, N.J.

David S. Lee, 37, West Orange, N.J.*

Linda C. Lee, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Gary H. Lee, 62, Lindenhurst, N.Y.*

Juanita Lee, 44, New York, N.Y.*

Lorraine Lee, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Richard Y.C. Lee, 34, Great Neck, N.Y.*

Yang Der Lee, 63, New York, N.Y.*

Kathryn Blair Lee, 55, New York, N.Y.*

Stuart (Soo-Jin) Lee, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Stephen Lefkowitz, 50, Belle Harbor, N.Y.*

Adriana Legro, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Edward J. Lehman, 41, Glen Cove, N.Y.*

Eric Andrew Lehrfeld, 32, New York, N.Y.*

David Ralph Leistman, 43, Garden City, N.Y.*

David Prudencio LeMagne, 27, North Bergen, N.J.*

Joseph A. Lenihan, 41, Greenwich, Conn.*

John J. Lennon, 44, Howell, N.J.*

John Robinson Lenoir, 38, Locust Valley, N.Y.*

Jorge Luis Leon, 43, Union City, N.J.

Matthew Gerard Leonard, 38, New York, N.Y.

Michael Lepore, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Charles Antoine Lesperance, 55*

Jeffrey Earle LeVeen, 55, Manhasset, N.Y.*

John D. Levi, 50, New York, N.Y.*

Neil D. Levin, 47, New York, N.Y.*

Alisha Caren Levin, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Robert Levine, 56, West Babylon, N.Y.

Robert M. Levine, 66, Edgewater, N.J.*

Shai Levinhar, 29, New York, N.Y.*

Adam J. Lewis, 36, Fairfield, Conn.*

Margaret Susan Lewis, 49, Elizabeth, N.J.*

Ye Wei Liang, 27, New York, N.Y.*

Orasri Liangthanasarn, 26, Bayonne, N.J.*

Daniel F. Libretti, 43, New York, N.Y.*

Ralph M. Licciardi, 30, West Hempstead, N.Y.*

Edward Lichtschein, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Steven B. Lillianthal, 38, Millburn, N.J.*

Carlos R. Lillo, 37, Babylon, N.Y.*

Craig Damian Lilore, 30, Lyndhurst, N.J.*

Arnold A. Lim, 28, New York, N.Y.*

Darya Lin, 32, Chicago, Ill.*

Wei Rong Lin, 31, Jersey City, N.J.*

Nickie L. Lindo, 31, New York, N.Y.

Thomas V. Linehan, 39, Montville, N.J.*

Robert Thomas Linnane, 33, West Hempstead, N.Y.*

Alan Linton, 26, Jersey City, N.J.*

Diane Theresa Lipari, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Kenneth P. Lira, 28, Paterson, N.J.*

Francisco Alberto Liriano, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Lorraine Lisi, 44, New York, N.Y.*

Paul Lisson, 45, New York, N.Y.

Vincent Litto, 52, New York, N.Y.*

Ming-Hao Liu, 41, Livingston, N.J.*

Nancy Liz, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Harold Lizcano, 31, East Elmhurst, N.Y.*

Martin Lizzul, 31, New York, N.Y.*

George A. Llanes, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Elizabeth Claire Logler, 31, Rockville Centre, N.Y.*

Catherine Lisa Loguidice, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Jerome Robert Lohez, 30, Jersey City, N.J.*

Michael W. Lomax, 37, New York, N.Y.

Laura M. Longing, 35, Pearl River, N.Y.*

Salvatore P. Lopes, 40, Franklin Square, N.Y.*

Luis Lopez, 38, New York, N.Y.

Manuel L. Lopez, 54, Jersey City, N.J.*

Daniel Lopez, 39, New York, N.Y.*

George Lopez, 40, Stroudsburg, Pa.*

Joseph Lostrangio, 48, Langhorne, Pa.*

Chet Louie, 45, New York, N.Y.*

Stuart Seid Louis, 43, East Brunswick, N.J.*

Joseph Lovero, 60, Jersey City, N.J.*

Michael W. Lowe, 48, New York, N.Y.*

Garry Lozier, 47, Darien, Conn.*

John Peter Lozowsky, 45, New York, N.Y.

Charles Peter Lucania, 34, East Atlantic Beach, N.Y.*

Edward (Ted) H. Luckett, 40, Fair Haven, N.J.*

Mark G. Ludvigsen, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Lee Charles Ludwig, 49, New York, N.Y.

Sean Thomas Lugano, 28, New York, N.Y.*

Daniel Lugo, 45, New York, N.Y.*

Marie Lukas, 32, New York, N.Y.*

William Lum, 45, New York, N.Y.*

Michael P. Lunden, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Christopher Lunder, 34, Wall, N.J.*

Anthony Luparello, 62, New York, N.Y.*

Gary Lutnick, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Linda Luzzicone, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Alexander Lygin, 28, New York, N.Y.*

James Francis Lynch, 47, Woodbridge, N.J.

Farrell Peter Lynch, 39, Centerport, N.Y.*

Louise A. Lynch, 58, Amityville, N.Y.*

Michael Lynch, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Michael F. Lynch, 33, New Hyde Park, N.Y.*

Michael Francis Lynch, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Richard Dennis Lynch, 30, Bedford Hills, N.Y.*

Robert H. Lynch, 44, Cranford, N.J.*

Sean Patrick Lynch, 36, Morristown, N.J.*

Sean Lynch, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Monica Lyons, 53, New York, N.Y.*

Michael J. Lyons, 32, Hawthorne, N.Y.*

Patrick Lyons, 34, South Setauket, N.Y.*

Robert Francis Mace, 43, New York, N.Y.*

Jan Maciejewski, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Catherine Fairfax MacRae, 23, New York, N.Y.*

Richard B. Madden, 35, Westfield, N.J.*

Simon Maddison, 40, Florham Park, N.J.*

Noell Maerz, 29, Long Beach, N.Y.*

Jeannieann Maffeo, 40, New York, N.Y.*

Joseph Maffeo, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Jay Robert Magazine, 48, New York, N.Y.*

Brian Magee, 52, Floral Park, N.Y.

Charles Wilson Magee, 51, Wantagh, N.Y.*

Joseph Maggitti, 47, Abingdon, Md.*

Ronald E. Magnuson, 57, Park Ridge, N.J.*

Daniel L. Maher, 50, Hamilton, N.J.*

Thomas Anthony Mahon, 37, East Norwich, N.Y.*

William Mahoney, 38, Bohemia, N.Y.*

Joseph Maio, 32, Roslyn Harbor, N.Y.*

Takashi Makimoto, 49, New York, N.Y.

Abdu Malahi, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Debora Maldonado, 47, New York, N.Y.*

Myrna T. Maldonado-Agosto, 49, New York, N.Y.*

Alfred R. Maler, 39, Convent Station, N.J.*

Gregory James Malone, 42, Hoboken, N.J.*

Edward Francis (Teddy) Maloney, 32, Darien, Conn.

Joseph E. Maloney, 46, Farmingville, N.Y.*

Gene E. Maloy, 41, New York, N.Y.*

Christian Maltby, 37, Chatham, N.J.*

Francisco Miguel (Frank) Mancini, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Joseph Mangano, 53, Jackson, N.J.*

Sara Elizabeth Manley, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Debra M. Mannetta, 31, Islip, N.Y.*

Terence J. Manning, 36, Rockville Centre, N.Y.*

Marion Victoria (vickie) Manning, 27, Rochdale, N.Y.*

James Maounis, 42, New York, N.Y.*

Joseph Ross Marchbanks, 47, Nanuet, N.Y.*

Peter Edward Mardikian, 29, New York, N.Y.*

Edward Joseph Mardovich, 42, Lloyd Harbor, N.Y.*

Lt. Charles Joseph Margiotta, 44, New York, N.Y.*

Kenneth Joseph Marino, 40, Monroe, N.Y.*

Lester Vincent Marino, 57, Massapequa, N.Y.*

Vita Marino, 49, New York, N.Y.

Kevin D. Marlo, 28, New York, N.Y.*

Jose J. Marrero, 32, Old Bridge, N.J.*

John Marshall, 35, Congers, N.Y.*

James Martello, 41, Rumson, N.J.*

Michael A. Marti, 26, Glendale, N.Y.*

Lt. Peter Martin, 43, Miller Place, N.Y.*

William J. Martin, 35, Rockaway, N.J.*

Brian E. Martineau, 37, Edison, N.J.*

Betsy Martinez, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Edward J. Martinez, 60, New York, N.Y.*

Jose Angel Martinez, 49, Hauppauge, N.Y.*

Robert Gabriel Martinez, 24, New York, N.Y.*

Lizie Martinez-Calderon, 32, New York, N.Y.*

Francis (Frank) Albert De Martini, 49, New York, N.Y.*

Lt. Paul Richard Martini, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Joseph A. Mascali, 44, New York, N.Y.*

Bernard Mascarenhas, 54, Newmarket, Ontario, Canada*

Stephen F. Masi, 55, New York, N.Y.*

Nicholas G. Massa, 65, New York, N.Y.*

Patricia A. Massari, 25, Glendale, N.Y.*

Michael Massaroli, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Philip W. Mastrandrea, 42, Chatham, N.J.*

Rudolph Mastrocinque, 43, Kings Park, N.Y.*

Joseph Mathai, 49, Arlington, Mass.*

Charles William Mathers, 61, Sea Girt, N.J.*

William A. Mathesen, 40, Morristown, N.J.*

Marcello Matricciano, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Margaret Elaine Mattic, 51, New York, N.Y.*

Robert D. Mattson, 54, Green Pond, N.J.*

Walter Matuza, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Charles A. (Chuck) Mauro, 65, New York, N.Y.*

Charles J. Mauro, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Dorothy Mauro, 55, New York, N.Y.*

Nancy T. Mauro, 51, New York, N.Y.*

Tyrone May, 44, Rahway, N.J.*

Keithroy Maynard, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Robert J. Mayo, 46, Morganville, N.J.*

Kathy Nancy Mazza-Delosh, 46, Farmingdale, N.Y.*

Edward Mazzella, 62, Monroe, N.Y.*

Jennifer Mazzotta, 23, New York, N.Y.*

Kaaria Mbaya, 39, Edison, N.J.*

James J. McAlary, 42, Spring Lake Heights, N.J.*

Brian McAleese, 36, Baldwin, N.Y.*

Patricia A. McAneney, 50, Pomona, N.Y.*

Colin Richard McArthur, 52, Howell, N.J.*

John McAvoy, 47, New York, N.Y.*

Kenneth M. McBrayer, 49, New York, N.Y.*

Brendan McCabe, 40, Sayville, N.Y.*

Michael J. McCabe, 42, Rumson, N.J.*

Thomas McCann, 46, Manalapan, N.J.*

Justin McCarthy, 30, Port Washington, N.Y.*

Kevin M. McCarthy, 42, Fairfield, Conn.*

Michael Desmond McCarthy, 33, Huntington, N.Y.*

Robert Garvin McCarthy, 33, Stony Point, N.Y.*

Stanley McCaskill, 47, New York, N.Y.*

Katie Marie McCloskey, 25, Mount Vernon, N.Y.*

Tara McCloud-Gray, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Charles Austin McCrann, 55, New York, N.Y.*

Tonyell McDay, 25, Colonia, N.J.*

Matthew T. McDermott, 34, Basking Ridge, N.J.*

Joseph P. McDonald, 43, Livingston, N.J.

Brian G. McDonnell, 38, Wantagh, N.Y.*

Michael McDonnell, 34, Red Bank, N.J.*

John F. McDowell, 33, New York, N.Y.*

Eamon J. McEneaney, 46, New Canaan, Conn.*

John Thomas McErlean, 39, Larchmont, N.Y.*

Daniel F. McGinley, 40, Ridgewood, N.J.*

Mark Ryan McGinly, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Lt. William E. McGinn, 43, New York, N.Y.*

Thomas H. McGinnis, 41, Oakland, N.J.*

Michael Gregory McGinty, 42, Foxboro, Mass.*

Ann McGovern, 68, East Meadow, N.Y.*

Scott Martin McGovern, 35, Wyckoff, N.J.*

William J. McGovern, 49, Smithtown, N.Y.*

Stacey S. McGowan, 38, Basking Ridge, N.J.*

Francis Noel McGuinn, 48, Rye, N.Y.*

Patrick J. McGuire, 40, Madison, N.J.

Thomas M. McHale, 33, Huntington, N.Y.*

Keith McHeffey, 31, Monmouth Beach, N.J.*

Denis J. McHugh, 36, New York, N.Y.*

Dennis P. McHugh, 34, Sparkill, N.Y.*

Michael Edward McHugh, 35, Tuckahoe, N.Y.*

Ann M. McHugh, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Robert G. McIlvaine, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Donald James McIntyre, 38, New City, N.Y.*

Stephanie McKenna, 45, New York, N.Y.*

Barry J. McKeon, 47, Yorktown Heights, N.Y.*

Evelyn C. McKinnedy, 60, New York, N.Y.

Darryl Leron McKinney, 26, New York, N.Y.*

Robert C. McLaughlin, 29, Westchester, N.Y.*

George Patrick McLaughlin, 36, Hoboken, N.J.*

Gavin McMahon, 35, Bayonne, N.J.*

Robert Dismas McMahon, 35, New York, N.Y.*

Edmund M. McNally, 41, Fair Haven, N.J.*

Daniel McNeal, 29, Towson, Md.

Walter Arthur McNeil, 53, Stroudsburg, Pa.*

Jaselliny McNish, 37

Sean Peter McNulty, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Christine Sheila McNulty, 42, Peterborough, England

Robert William McPadden, 30, Pearl River, N.Y.*

Terence A. McShane, 37, West Islip, N.Y.*

Timothy Patrick McSweeney, 37, New York, N.Y.*

Martin E. McWilliams, 35, Kings Park, N.Y.*

Rocco A. Medaglia, 49, Melville, N.Y.*

Abigail Medina, 46, New York, N.Y.*

Ana Iris Medina, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Deborah Medwig, 46, Dedham, Mass.

William J. Meehan, 49, Darien, Conn.*

Damian Meehan, 32, Glen Rock, N.J.*

Alok Kumar Mehta, 23, Hempstead, N.Y.*

Raymond Meisenheimer, 46, West Babylon, N.Y.*

Manuel Emilio Mejia, 54, New York, N.Y.

Eskedar Melaku, 31, New York, N.Y.*

Antonio Melendez, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Mary Melendez, 44, Stroudsburg, Pa.*

Yelena Melnichenko, 28, Brooklyn, N.Y.*

Stuart Todd Meltzer, 32, Syosset, N.Y.*

Diarelia Jovannah Mena, 30, New York, N.Y.*

Charles Mendez, 38, Floral Park, N.Y.*

Lizette Mendoza, 33, North Bergen, N.J.*

Shevonne Mentis, 25, New York, N.Y.*

Steve Mercado, 38, New York, N.Y.*

Wesley Mercer, 70, New York, N.Y.*

Ralph Joseph Mercurio, 47, Rockville Centre, N.Y.*

Alan H. Merdinger, 47, Allentown, Pa.*

George C. Merino, 39, New York, N.Y.*

Yamel Merino, 24, Yonkers, N.Y.

George Merkouris, 35, Levittown, N.Y.*

Deborah Merrick, 45

Raymond J. Metz, 37, Trumbull, Conn.*

Jill A. Metzler, 32, Franklin Square, N.Y.*

David Robert Meyer, 57, Glen Rock, N.J.*

Nurul Huq Miah, 35, New York, N.Y.*

William Edward Micciulli, 30, Matawan, N.J.*

Martin Paul Michelstein, 57, Morristown, N.J.

Luis Clodoaldo Revilla Mier, 54

Peter T. Milano, 43, Middletown, N.J.*

Gregory Milanowycz, 25, Cranford, N.J.*

Lukasz T. Milewski, 21, New York, N.Y.*

Corey Peter Miller, 34, New York, N.Y.*

Henry Miller, 52, East Norwich, N.Y.*

Phillip D. Miller, 53, New York, N.Y.*

Craig James Miller, 29, Va.

Douglas C. Miller, 34, Port Jervis, N.Y.*

Michael Matthew Miller, 39, Englewood, N.J.*

Robert C. Miller, 55, Hasbrouck Heights, N.J.

Robert Alan Miller, 46, Matawan, N.J.*

Joel Miller, 55, Baldwin, N.Y.*

Benjamin Millman, 40, New York, N.Y.*

Charles M. Mills, 61, Brentwood, N.Y.*

Ronald Keith Milstein, 54, New York, N.Y.*

Robert Minara, 54, Carmel, N.Y.*

Willi

Posted by Jennifer at 12:28 AM | Comments (7)

September 10, 2003

Afghanistan

Afghanistan has long been a patchwork of different ethnic groups spread across its mountainous landscape. The largest group, the Pashtuns, makes up less than half the population. This group provided the leaders of the country.

During the 1900s, Afghan kings tried to modernize in order to survive. Trying to balance Islamic beliefs with a modernized society was not an easy task. Deeply conservative tribesmen resisted many of their efforts. The kings tried to end “purdah” for women, which confined them to a life behind the veil. Rural tribesmen overthrew King Amanullah in 1929 when he attempted to give women their freedom. By 1959 women were given the legal right to choose for themselves whether or not to wear the veil. For the next couple decades women in the cities wore Western clothes and girls attended schools.

In 1973, King Zahir Shah was deposed while in Italy. Pro-Soviet officers and the king’s brother were responsible. Communist forces announced radical social and economic changes, which the population rejected. Afghanistan had always staved off invaders, including Britain in 1842. The independent citizens were not pleased with their new Soviet residents. In the city of Herat, Ismail Khan led a rebellion that was responsible for killing Soviet advisers and their families.

In 1979, with the new Communist regime failing, Russia decided to intervene. Russian troops murdered Afghan President Amin and installed a new regime in his place. The new leader was Babrak Kamal, who was meant to smooth over the discontent in Afghanistan. However, the occupation of the country by 100,000 Russian troops fueled resentment amongst the Afghans. The former problems between different tribal groups and the quarrels between the Shiite and Sunni Muslims disappeared. Everyone seemed united in hatred of this foreign occupation.

The Russians now faced a formidable opponent. Afghanistan had maintained its independence throughout history thanks to its mountainous terrain and tradition of guerrilla warfare. Now the Afghans also had the support of the United States. President Ronald Reagan wanted to supply weapons and money to the Afghans’ fight against the Russian “evil empire.”

The Mujahideen (soldiers of God) used American anti-aircraft missiles to destroy 600 Russian aircraft, which the Soviets could not afford to replace. Mikhail Gorbachev became leader of the Soviet Union in 1985 and quickly looked for ways to withdraw from Afghanistan. Gorbachev backed Najibullah as the new leader, and in early 1989 the Russians withdrew their troops.

Russian money and weapons kept Najibullah in control of Kabul, but the collapse of the Soviet Union meant the collapse of the communist regime in Afghanistan. The Mujahideen marched to Kabul in the spring of 1992 while Najibullah and his family sought refuge at the UN compound. They were safe there until 1996 when Taliban fighters hung Najibullah and his brother.

The fall of the Soviet Union overshadowed the events in Afghanistan. The fall of Kabul didn’t register in the Western world. The Afghan warlords carved up the country for their own gains. The population that expected liberation was now subjected to looting, rape, and other whims of the Mujahideen. Up to four million Afghans fled to other countries...mostly Pakistan.

Many of the refugees felt abandoned by the Western world. Islamic fundamentalism grew, as did the resentment of a generation of young men. These students, or “Taliban,” were bitter and disillusioned. The warlords were running Afghanistan, and the Taliban wanted to put a stop to the lawlessness. Enter Mullah Muhammed Omar, who lost an eye fighting the Russians. In 1994 he, a few students, and 16 guns confronted a local warlord. The man had kidnapped two girls so his men could rape them. The small Taliban group defeated him, and Omar had him executed.

Mullah Omar’s law and order was welcomed by the Afghan people, and the Taliban was now being helped by Pakistan and Saudi fundamentalists. Pakistan’s interest was mostly economic, hoping to establish trade with a peaceful Afghanistan. Saudi interest was largely religious, given the Mullah’s appreciation of their land as the source of pure Islam.

Mullah Omar executed the captured leaders of the Mujahideen, and when the Taliban took Kabul in 1996, they took Najibullah and his brother, as well. Their hanging was a sign for the country that the Taliban was in control. Mullah Omar became Emir, the leader of the faithful.

The Emir issued a religious edict requiring women to once again wear the full burka. Women were also restricted to keep their education and work in the home. Widows could not work to feed their children. The Taliban insisted God would provide. The war had left many widows, and they now faced poverty and starvation.

The lawlessness of the warlords was gone, and some were attracted to the Taliban’s return to “pure” Islamic values. Some people regarded Afghanistan as a model for Muslim societies. One of them was Osama Bin Laden.

Bin Laden was born the seventh son of a wealthy Saudi construction magnate in 1957. He fought with the Mujahideen after 1984, but then turned against America in 1991. He believed the Saudi government was a puppet for the United States and resented American troops being allowed to attack Iraq from Saudi Arabia. He spent several years in exile in Sudan, but was driven out for his support of terrorism.

In 1996 Bin Laden returned to Afghanistan, where Omar was wary of him at first. Soon Bin Laden won him over with his fanatical Islamic beliefs. Bin Laden married one of Omar’s daughters and set up Al-Qaeda (Citadel) training camps in Afghanistan. The Taliban had only aspired to purify Afghanistan, but with the joining of Omar and Bin Laden, they now planned a global anti-American movement.

The final culmination of their efforts was the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001.

(ed. That’s right. Final.)

Posted by Jennifer at 03:58 AM | Comments (4)

1974 Trivia: Patty Hearst

Newspaper heiress Patty Hearst was kidnapped from her Berkeley, CA, home by a group called the Symbionese Liberation Army. Two months later she announced in a taped message that she was joining the SLA of her own free will and changing her name to Tania. She was later photographed robbing a San Francisco bank.

Posted by Jennifer at 02:01 AM

September 07, 2003

Women's Suffrage

Per request, here is more information on women's suffrage in America in handy timeline format:

1776: While her husband attends the second Continental Congress, Abigail Adams writes John to "remember the ladies" in the Declaration of Independence.

1790: The New Jersey colony gives the vote to "all free inhabitants."

1807: New Jersey women lose the vote when a repeal is sponsored by a politician who was nearly defeated by female voters.

1854: Massachusetts grants property rights to women.

1855: Suffragists Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell marry and delete the vow "to obey" from the ceremony. (Those of you who read Laura Ingalls Wilder's books may remember that this was an issue for her as well, even though she was not a suffragist.)

1869: The territory of Wyoming is the first to grant unrestricted suffrage to women.

1870: Esther Morris becomes justice of the peace of South Pass City, Wyoming and the first female government official. The Fifteenth Amendment is ratified. Although its gender-neutral language appears to grant women the vote, they are turned away from the polls. Utah territory women get the vote.

1872: A suffrage proposal in Dakota Territory loses by one vote.

1875: Michigan and Minnesota women win the right to vote in school elections.

1878: The first federal amendment to grant women the right to vote is introduced by Senator Sargeant of California. It fails.

1883: Women in the Washington territory are granted full voting rights.

1887: The Supreme Court strikes down the law that enfranchised women in the Washington territory. Congress takes away the vote from Utah's women. Kansas women win the right to vote in municipal elections.

1893: Colorado men vote and give women full voting rights.

1896: Idaho enfranchises women. Utah becomes a state, and Utah women regain the vote.

1910: Washington State gives women full enfranchisement.

1911: California women win full voting rights.

1912: Alaska's territorial legislature enfranchises women. Oregon and Kansas women win the vote. Arizona becomes a state and includes women as voters. Presidential candidates court the female vote for the first time. Democrat Woodrow Wilson wins the election.

1913: Illinois grants women the right to vote only in presidential elections.

1914: The Senate votes on the "Susan B. Anthony" amendment, but it does not pass. Nevada and Montana women get the vote.

1916: Woodrow Wilson promises the Democratic Party Platform will endorse suffrage. Montana elects Republican Jeanette Rankin to the House of Representatives.

1917: The Arkansas legislature grants white women the right to vote in primary, but not general elections. Rhode Island grants women the right to vote in presidential elections only. New York is the first eastern state to give full voting rights to women.

1918: Rankin opens debate in the House on a new suffrage amendment, which passes. President Wilson addresses the Senate in support of the Nineteenth Amendment, but it does not win the necessary 2/3 majority of Senate votes.

1919: Michigan, Oklahoma, and South Dakota join the full suffrage states. The House votes to enfranchise women for the third time. The Senate finally passes the Nineteenth Amendment.

1920: Three quarters of state legislatures ratify the Nineteenth Amendment on August 26. American women finally have full voting rights.

Posted by Jennifer at 11:36 AM | Comments (4)

September 05, 2003

What Do You Know?

About roads...

The first major road was the Persian Royal Road, which stretched from the Persian Gulf to the Aegean Sea. It was 1775 miles long and used around 3500-300 B.C.

The Romans were renowned for their empire's roads. At its peak, the Roman Empire had 53,000 miles of roads from Britain to North Africa.

The first major motorway was built from Cologne to Bonn from 1929-1932. In 1933, Adolf Hitler began a motorway network, the Reichsautobahnen (national motor roads).

The earliest roads were the paths of prehistoric peoples; construction of roads began with the advent of wheeled vehicles.

Road improvements began in many countries during the 1880s and '90s to accommodate bicycles.

This isn't really a "road" fact, but I found it interesting: North America, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand have the highest concentrations of cars. All of these areas have ratios of 1 car per 2-4 persons. By contrast, China numbers 1 car per 2000 persons.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:52 AM

September 04, 2003

The Cost of War

According to the Dictionary of American History, World War II was the most expensive war for our country. This includes veterans' benefits, interest on debts, etc. Here are the costs of American wars:

Revolutionary War - $149 million
War of 1812 - $124 million
Mexican War - $107 million
Civil War (Union side) - $8 billion
Spanish-American War - $2.5 billion
World War I - $66 billion
World War II - $560 billion
Korean War - $70 billion
Vietnam War - $121.5 billion
Persian Gulf War - $80 billion (most of this was paid by our allies)

* These numbers are not adjusted for inflation. If you'd like an idea of the adjusted totals, try here. WWII still ranks at number one.

Posted by Jennifer at 08:34 AM

September 03, 2003

Women's Rights

It's easy to take our voting rights for granted in America and other democratic countries. Women in particular often forget that our right to vote is a relatively new thing.

In the U.S., it was the 19th Amendment in 1920 that guaranteed women the right to vote in all state and federal elections. America, the birthplace of democracy, was not the leader in women's suffrage, however. That distinction belongs to New Zealand, who extended full voting rights to women in 1893. In 1902, Australia gave women the right to vote in national elections.

Around the same time America finally granted women the vote, Great Britain, Canada, Finland, German, and Sweden also gave their women the vote. By the mid-1900s France, Italy, India, China, and Japan had followed suit. By the 1990s, the only country in the world that gave the right to vote to men but not women was Kuwait.

Many Kuwaiti women run businesses. They are educated. But they still don't have the vote. Hopefully that is about to change. America's occupation of Iraq is putting additional pressure on the Kuwaiti government to extend equal rights to women. Kuwait's parliamentary elections this summer may have put enough supporters in office to finally give women equality in Kuwait.

Support for women's rights is strong in the capital, but traditional Islamic leaders in the more rural areas have long fought against extending voting rights to their women. In 1999 the parliamentary vote was 30-32. So close, but not close enough. Let's hope the supporters in the parliament are numerous enough to do the right thing this time around.

Posted by Jennifer at 11:08 AM | Comments (3)

September 01, 2003

1974 Trivia: Arafat at the UN

Welcome to the month of my birth. September. The year of my birth was 1974...so as you can figure out, I will be 29 this month. You still have time to purchase gifts. Perhaps gifts will offset the trauma that comes with turning 29.

To celebrate the occasion of my birth, I will post a little fact about 1974 each day this month.

In 1974, PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat made his first appearance before the U.N. He did so with a gun strapped to his side, claiming "I have come bearing an olive branch and a freedom fighter's gun. Do not let the olive branch fall from my hand."

For more information on this event, you can visit this site.

Posted by Jennifer at 09:45 AM | Comments (7)

August 29, 2003

Personal Histories

An idea I have been toying with for quite some time was to invite readers to send in their own personal history...anything ranging from genealogy to military stories to anecdotal history about their Great-Aunt Ada. We all have history in our lives, whether we served in Vietnam, watched the Twin Towers fall, or recorded the stories our Grandma told us.

If you have a story/anecdote you'd like to share but don't have a blog or don't think it "fits" with your own blog, I'd be happy to post it here. If there is enough interest, I may rededicate the old place to such a pursuit.

Bob from Modular Parrot sent me a nice e-mail about his own Irish history. With his permission, I am posting it here:

I share your interest in things historical. My fascination with English and Irish history actually stems from an interest in, of all things, my family genealogy. About 15 years ago I received an original copy of a book written in 1906, outlining the Whalley/Whaley family history in England, Ireland and America going back 900 plus years to the Norman conquest of England in 1066. I belong to a genealogical group who has made an in-depth study of this writing and we have not been able to connect the dots all the way back to 1066 and probably never will. That trail went cold long ago, in spite of the Domesday Book, commissioned and completed by William the Conqueror, which documented ownership of every inch of English soil shortly after the Norman Conquest. We have, however, been able to trace the Whalley family as far back as the 14th century. But, I'm straying off topic. Can't help myself.

My research is focused on the English Civil Wars during the 17th century. In particular, two gentlemen; Major General Edward Whalley (first cousin of Oliver Cromwell) and Whalley's son-in-law, Major General William Goffe. Both were regicide judges and signatories of the King Charles I death sentence. The story becomes even more interesting when the monarchy was restored in 1660; both men secretly escaped to America to avoid the wrath of Charles II. Whalley left behind his family and a great family fortune, the lands and money later confiscated by Charles II and others. Whalley and Goffe remained hidden and protected by sympathetic Puritans in New England, avoiding capture by agents of the king, for the next twenty years. Most of the 59 regicides who did not escape England were not as fortunate and many lost heads, legs and arms.

I've collected reams of documents and writings concerning this period of Irish and English history, including accounts of the decimation, relocation and deportation of ž of Ireland's population and the official redistribution of Irish lands to individuals in Cromwell's army and English "adventurers".

Then, jump ahead to a very mysterious settler in Virginia and later Rhode Island, who my family tradition says, was related to General Whalley. Living under a presumed alias, first in Virginia and then Rhode Island, this well educated but reclusive individual is the progenitor of my line in America.

Next, enter modern genome technology.

I am presently translating an Irish Chancery Court case from 1699 (extremely rare since many written Irish records were destroyed in a fire in 1921), in which Edward's youngest son challenges the will of Edward's brother. This case has led me to Ireland and in turn to a modern day branch of the Whaley family now living in America. With the new Y-chromosome analysis that is available today, it is possible to genetically connect males of a direct lineage back thousands of years. I am presently working with these modern day Whaley members to solve the mystery of my Rhode Island Whaley. I suspect he is Edward Whalley's oldest son but smarter folks than I have remained baffled over this man's true identity for well over 300 years. We'll see what turns up.

While researching this story, I've made many friends in England, Ireland and America. Some are authors, some are academics but most are just plain old novice historians like me. If there are particular questions you have about this period in Irish history, I'd be glad to answer your questions or at least, point you in the direction of an answer. There exist wonderful and copious sources of information that have become available to the average researcher in the new digital age. And more comes on-line every day.

This is one of the things I do in my spare time, what little of it there is. Hope your eyes haven't glazed over.

Once again, this was submitted by Bob from Modular Parrot. Thank you, Bob.

If you would like to send in a piece of your own personal history, please e-mail me.


Posted by Jennifer at 03:13 PM | Comments (2)

August 28, 2003

Irish Timeline

Ireland is one of those places I’ve always vaguely wanted to know more about. I never really understood what the IRA and all the bombings were in regards to. I knew Northern Ireland was disputed somehow, but the particulars were beyond my scope of knowledge.

The Emerald Isle, the Potato Famine, and Saint Patrick are terms in almost every American’s vocabulary. Yet even Irish Americans don’t always know the history of Ireland’s problems with England. A friend is 100% Irish American and a history buff to boot…but he couldn’t shed much light on the issue, either. The topic was never brought up in any great depth in my history courses...Irish history was always discussed as it affected American history.

So I did a little research and compiled a timeline regarding the issues between Ireland and England.

12th century: England begins invasions of Ireland, eventually establishing a feudal system on Ireland. There is now a British absentee landlord class and an impoverished Irish peasantry.

1700s: England attempts to impose Protestantism on mostly Catholic Ireland, resulting in Irish rebellions.

1800: The Act of Union unites England and Ireland, creating the United Kingdom.

1800s: The British crown starts populating the six counties of Ulster in northeastern Ireland with Scottish and British settlers. The north becomes industrialized and Protestant. The south remains agricultural and Catholic.

1840s: A famine strikes Ireland, resulting in greater discontent with British rule. Many who survive emigrate.

1858: The Fenian movement forms in Ireland and amongst Irish Americans. The group seeks Irish independence by force. Rebellions are suppressed by England.

1870: Parliament passes the First Land Act to help Irish tenants buy land.

1886: The First Home Rule Bill, meant to allow Irish self-government, fails to pass in Parliament.

1893: The Second Home Rule Bill passes in the House of Commons but is defeated by the Lords.

1905: Sinn Fein (“we ourselves”) forms under Arthur Griffith. The group seeks economic and political independence from England.

1912: The Third Home Rule Bill is introduced to Parliament, passing the House of Commons. Northern Ireland fears dominance by the south and the threat of civil war becomes a real possibility. The Lords exclude Ulster (northern) Ireland from the Home Rule Bill. Unrest keeps the Bill from taking effect.

1916: The failed Easter Monday Rebellion sets off several years of guerrilla warfare under Sinn Fein member Michael Collins and the Irish Republican Army (IRA).

1920: The Government of Ireland Act passes in Parliament. Separate legislatures are set up for the north and south. Ireland keeps representation in the Parliament. Ulster accepts the act and becomes Northern Ireland. The south refuses the legislation.

1922: The south becomes the Irish Free State (later the Irish Republic), led by Arthur Griffith.

1927: Sinn Fein becomes the political wing of the IRA.

1939-1945: Both Irish governments outlaw the violent and pro-German IRA, and it becomes an underground entity.

1969: The IRA splits into an official wing that decries violence and a “provisional” wing that performs terrorist bombings and other acts. Violence continues through the 1990s.

1998: The Good Friday Agreement is approved as a peace settlement for Northern Ireland. It is designed to heal divisions between Catholics and Protestants. The power-sharing government is approved by voters in both the north and south.

If you have something to add to this, please do! That’s what the comments section is for. Thanks!

Posted by Jennifer at 05:39 AM | Comments (2)

August 25, 2003

What Do You Know?

About Navy discipline?

I found a list of punishments from 1848, and here is a website that verifies some of the items on the list of offenses.

For bad cooking=12 strokes of the whip.
For stealing a major's wig=12 strokes of the whip.
For skulking=12 strokes of the whip.
For running into debt on shore=12 strokes of the whip.
For tearing a sailor's frock=9 strokes of the whip.
For filthiness=12 strokes of the whip.
For noise at quarters=6 strokes of the whip.
For bad language=12 strokes of the whip.
For dirty and unwashed clothes=12 strokes of the whip.
For being out of hammock after hours=12 strokes of the whip.
For throwing overboard the top of a spittoon=6 strokes of the whip.
For skylarking (running up and down the rigging of a ship)=6 strokes of the whip.
For being naked on deck=9 strokes of the whip.

Posted by Jennifer at 10:09 PM

Russia 1917, Part Two

As stated in my Friday post, Lenin's Red Guards stormed the provisional government's headquarters in Petrograd. By November 8, the provisional government of Russia had fallen to the Bolsheviks. After the revolution, the Bolsheviks put Vladimir Lenin into power. Delivering on his promise to end the country's involvement in World War I, Lenin called for peace talks with Germany and ended the fighting on the Eastern Front. However, the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, signed March 3, 1918, dictated harsh and humiliating terms to Russia. The country was forced to give up vast territories including Finland, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldavia, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

Meanwhile, Russians had elected officials to a parliamentary assembly, but the results were unfavorable to Lenin. Only 168 of the 703 deputies were Communists, so he had troops bar the deputies from convening and the assembly was permanently disbanded. Instead of the proletariat rule he had promised, Lenin established a dictatorship based on the Cheka, the Communist secret police. This despite his previous arguments that after a proletarian revolution, the state's police and bureaucrats would disappear.

Furthermore, the radical social reforms he had promised took the form of government takeover of Russia's industries and the seizure of farm products from peasants. Lenin's hard-handed tactics--combined with the hostility towards the Brest-Litovsk Treaty--created opposition to the Communists, or "Reds." The "White" army was organized to oppose the Communists and civil war ensued. In September 1918 Lenin was almost assassinated, and his supporters retaliated with what was to be known as the Red Terror.

The Red Army was built up to a three-million-strong force. The White army was scattered around Russia and had difficulty coordinating operations across vast distances. The White generals also had difficulty assuring the populace that there was no intention to restore the Tsar and his government. The war was bitter, with both sides committing atrocities to terrorize the opponent into submission. The former Imperial family was murdered to show the Red Army there was no turning back. The civil war devastated the economy even further and famine spread through central Russia. Troops robbed the peasants, taking the food they needed and destroying the rest to keep them from the enemy.

By mid-1920 the Red Army had captured the last White stronghold, the Crimea. The Whites were defeated, but the revolution was not over. Lenin believed it had hardly begun. However, he faced new opposition once the Whites were vanquished.

He hoped to abolish private property and capitalism completely, replacing them with a socialist economy and a modern, industrial Russia. He had tried to abolish money but still gave preferential treatment to key members of the new communist regime. This did not stop with the end of the civil war, and many ordinary supporters felt betrayed by the privileged group.

Peasants across Russia had also come to hate the abuses of the Red Army. They had not supported the Whites, but now they formed peasant "Green" forces to fight the Reds. These rural uprisings were smashed. In March 1921 sailors and dockworkers in Kronstadt, once called "the reddest of the red" by Lenin since they had spearheaded the 1917 revolution, rose up against the dictatorship of Lenin's "red bourgeoisie." The Kronstadt Rising was also smashed by the Red Army.

The Soviet Union was officially formed in 1922 when Russia joined with Ukraine, Belarus, and the Transcaucasian Federation (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. These republics were later joined by nine others. In 1924 Lenin died of a stroke, but the atmosphere of internal repression, suspicion of outsiders, and regimentation of everyday life that he established would last for generations.

Posted by Jennifer at 10:05 PM


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